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NISTIR 6922 


Calibration Experiments of a Laser Scanner 


Building and Fire Research Laboratory 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 

NIST 

United States Department of Commerce 
Technology Administration 

National Institute of Standards and Technology 

QC 

/ ot> 




NISTIR 6922 


Calibration Experiments of a Laser Scanner 


Geraldine S. Cheok 
Stefan Leigh 
Andrew Rukhin 


September 2002 

Building and Fire Research Laboratory 
National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 



U. S. Department of Commerce 

Donald L. Evans, Secretary 

Technology Administration 

Phillip J. Bond, Under Secretary 

Technology Administration 

National Institute of Standards and Technology 

Arden L. Bement, Director 



ABSTRACT 


The potential applications of laser scanners or LADARs (Laser Detection and Ranging) are 
numerous, and they cross several sectors of the industry - construction, large-scale 
manufacturing, remote sensing, national defense. A LADAR is an instrument which can rapidly 
capture 3-D data of a scene in the form of x, y, z points. The confidence in end products of the 
applications - 3D models, positioning, derived quantities - depends largely on the accuracy and 
precision of the laser scanner. For global uncertainty analysis via error propagation, specific 
instrumental uncertainties need to be determined. 

This report chronicles exploratory experiments conducted at the National Institute of Standards 
and Technology to characterize a LADAR, focusing on accuracy and precision. The specific 
variables considered were distance, angle of incidence, and target color. Other characteristics of 
the LADAR such as the returned intensity and beam divergence were also examined. 

Initial findings indicate no obvious global color effect on accuracy although range-specific biases 
were observed. Decreased measurement accuracy is observed for higher angles of incidence. 
Reflectivity contributes to measurement error with highly reflective targets exhibiting large 
errors in the shorter ranges and low reflective targets being less precise in the longer ranges. 

These initial efforts are expected to contribute to the understanding of what is required to 
calibrate similar sensors in terms of significant parameters, test procedures, and calibration 
facility requirements. 

































TABLE OF CONTENTS 


ABSTRACT iii 

CONTENTS v 

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 

2.0 EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS AND PROCEDURES 5 

2. 1 Data Set 1 - Effect of Color on Range Accuracy 6 

2.2 Data Set 2 - Effect of Distance (0 m to 60 m) on Range Accuracy 7 

2.3 Data Set 3 - Extension of Data Set 2 (60 m to 108 m) 8 

2.4 Data Set 4 - Effect of Distance (5 m to 1 60 m) on Range Accuracy 8 

2.5 Data Set 5 - Effect of Distance (1 0 m to 1 50 m) on Range Accuracy and 

Effect of Distance on Intensity Value 9 

2.6 Data Set 6 - Effect of Angle Incidence on Accuracy 12 

2.7 Data Set 7 - Spatial Correlation 15 

2.8 Data Set 8 - Autocorrelation 16 

3.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 17 

3.1 Color 17 

3.1.1 Data Set 1 17 

3.1.2 Data Set 4 22 

3.1.3 Data Set 5 27 

3.1.4 Combined Data Sets 31 

3.2 Intensity 32 

3 . 3 Angle of Incidence 35 

3.3.1 Data Set 6 35 

3.3.2 Data Sets 5 and 6 46 

3.4 Beam Divergence 47 

3.5 Correlation 54 

3.5.1 Temporal Autocorrelation - Data Set 8 55 

3.5.2 Spatial Autocorrelation - Data Set 7 57 

4.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH NEEDS 60 

4. 1 Summary and Conclusions 60 

4.2 Research Needs 61 

REFERENCES 63 

APPENDIX A 65 

APPENDIX B 82 


v 































1.0 INTRODUCTION 


LADAR (laser detection and ranging) technology has been available since the 1970s. Its full 
potential, however, was not fully realized until recently (1990s) because of inhibitive cost and 
poor reliability of the early devices. However, advances in micro-chip lasers, optics, MEMS 
(microelectromechanical systems) technology, and computers have led to increases in speed of 
data acquisition, range accuracy and reliability as well as reduction in size and costs. As the use 
of LADARs increases, the need is growing to characterize their performance and to develop 
confidence limits for the LADAR data and their end products. There has been little effort in this 
area thus far. 

A LADAR is an instrument which can rapidly capture 3-D data of a scene in the form of x, y, z 
points (point clouds, Lig. 1.1) as contrasted to photography, which gives a 2-D projection. In 
general, LADARs return two pieces of information, range (=distance) and intensity (function of 
the strength of the return signal). Additionally, some LADARS can obtain other spectral data 
such as R(ed), G(reen), B(lue) values which can be used to aid in object identification. 

This report chronicles exploratory calibration experiments conducted at the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology (NIST). These experiments, conducted over a period of three years, 
served three purposes: 1) to characterize the performance of a laser scanner with the focus on 
accuracy and precision calibrations of the LADAR, 2) as a learning process for the use of and 
familiarization with the LADAR and 3) to address needs as they arose such as the examination of 
intensity for bar code recognition. The experimental variables included distance, target color 
(reflectivity) and angle of incidence. Additionally, the effect target material and distance on 
intensity, and the laser beam divergence were examined. 


1 



Figure 1.1. Point Clouds of a Wooded Area (top) and a Vehicle (bottom). 

The potential applications of LADARs are tremendous, and they cross several sectors of the 
industry - construction, large-scale manufacturing, remote sensing, national defense (military). 
Some applications for LADAR data are shown in Fig. 1.2. These applications include creating 
3-D models for as-builts, reverse engineering, surveying, urban planning, terrain mapping, and 
machine automation. 


2 






y 800 soo Courtesy of J. Turner, Rapid 



Courtesy of Cyra 


Figure 1.2. Some Applications for LADAR Data -3D Models, Terrain Mapping, Surveying, 

Quality Control*. 


The confidence in final products from the measurements - 3D models, positioning, derived 
quantities (e.g., volume), etc. - depends largely on the accuracy and precision of the laser 
scanner. Accuracy is defined by how close a measurement is to the true value, while precision is 


Certain trade names and company products are mentioned in the text or identified in an illustration in order to 
adequately specify the experimental procedure and equipment used. In no case does such an identification imply 
recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the 
products are necessarily the best available for the purpose. 


3 






defined as the scatter or variation in repeated measurements. Generic instrumental uncertainties 
propagate through to end results. 

A first, basic approach to the estimation of uncertainties associated with reconstruction of scene 
features is to incorporate propagation-of-error (“delta method”) based estimates of error [Taylor, 
1997] to the surface generation (meshing) algorithms. Roughly, this requires first order 
estimates of error at any point in the mesh, i.e., standard error (or variance) of distance 
measurements, and if possible second order estimates of spatial covariances between points. 
Spatial covariance of measurements taken in close proximity leads to refinement (2 n<f order 
terms) in propagation-of-error generated standard errors. Negative covariances may be exploited 
to improve the error estimates. Positive covariances inflate error estimates. The standard 
temporal correlation measure is the serial autocorrelation. Presence of significant autocorrelation 
indicates that standard error propagation methods may produce results that are better than 
warranted. This is the underlying motivation for all the issues considered in this publication. 
We examine factors influencing the accuracy and precision of LADAR estimated distances (first 
order), and consider temporal autocorrelation and spatial covariance (second order) briefly as 
well in this report. 

Besides instrument error, the computational techniques used to process the data contribute to the 
accuracy of estimating such derived quantities as volume and object position/dimensions. For 
example, model accuracy is affected by the number of points chosen to create the model (full or 
subset), and for a subset of points, selection of the points and number of points selected; if the 
point cloud consists of two of more scans obtained from different locations, how well were the 
different scans registered to a common reference frame; and how was noise filtered out. 

This report deals primarily with the accuracy and precision (repeatability) of the hardware, i.e., 
the scanner, and not the software, and it describes experiments and statistical analyses conducted 
in order to determine the effect of color and angle of incidence on the accuracy and precision of 
the scanner’s range measurements. As a result of additional information gathered during the 
conduct of the range calibrations, the effect of distance on the signal intensity and laser 
divergence could also be studied. These initial efforts contribute to the understanding of what is 
required to calibrate similar sensors in terms of significant parameters, test procedures, and 
calibration facility requirements. Other similar efforts may be found in Marshall and Gilby 
[2001], Marshall et. al. [2001], Collier [1998], El-Hakim et. al. [1995], and Kweon et. al. [1991]. 

This report is organized as follows: An introduction is given in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes 
the different data sets and the conditions under which the data were collected. A discussion of 
the experimental results and an analysis of the results are given in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the 
findings based on the results of the experiments and research needs are presented. 


4 


2.0 EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS AND PROCEDURES 


The laser scanner records range and intensity data. The maximum range of the tested laser 
scanner is 150 m, and the manufacturer’s specified accuracy varies from ± 2 cm (best case) to 
±5 cm (worst case). The range is based on the time-of-flight of the returned signal with the 
triggering of the detector based on the strength of return signal. The intensity data are integer 
values ranging from 0 (lowest) to 225 (highest) and are also a function of the strength of the 
return signal. 

The signal strength is primarily dependent on the distance and reflectivity of the object. The 
reflectivity of the object is a function of the object’s color, texture (smooth, rough), specularity. 
Since the scanner would be used to scan scenes that contain objects of varying colors and 
textures, a pilot experiment to assess the influence of color and/or texture on the accuracy of the 
range measurements was conducted. As more understanding and hands-on experience with the 
scanner was gained, the effect of angle of incidence emerged as a significant effect on the range 
accuracy and precision. Thus, additional tests were conducted to determine the effect of angle of 
incidence on the range accuracy and precision. Also, as discussed in Section 2.5, data on the 
intensity value were collected as the need to determine the effect of distance on the intensity 
value arose. All experiments took place at the NIST, Gaithersburg campus at four indoor sites. 

All experimental range data were collected in the form of (x, y ) pairs where y = LADAR distance 
measurement and x - independent measurement of the distance, e.g., total station, interferometer 
or tape measure. This enables assessment of the accuracy of the LADAR as well as its precision. 

A summary of the varying test conditions used to study the effect of distance, color, and angle of 
incidence on the range accuracy is given in Table 2.1 (an “X” in the column indicates that the 
parameter was studied). Color, specularity, and texture were varied between representative 
extremes and combined in fractional factorial fashion to examine the potential effects of each. 

Table 2.1. Test Parameters. 


Material 

Distance 

Angle of 
Incidence 

Intensity 

White, smooth, shiny 

X 

X 

X 

White, smooth, not shiny 

X 



Yellow, smooth, not shiny 

X 




Pink, smooth, not shiny 

X 



Green, smooth, not shiny 

X 



Dark Gray, rough, not shiny 

X 



Black, smooth, shiny 



X 

X 

X 

Black, smooth, not shiny 

X 



Silver (uncoated aluminum) 

X 

X 

X 

3M Long Distance Performance 
(LDP) - Reflective material 

X 


X 


5 


The most desirable distance calibration is an absolute distance calibration where the distance 
from the scanner to the target is accurately determined by independent means. However, for the 
first distance calibration. Data Set 1 , the laser distances were compared with distances measured 
with an interferometer. The accuracy of the interferometer is several orders of magnitude better 
than that of the laser scanner. The interferometer is, however, a relative distance instrument. 
Therefore, the first calibration is a relative distance calibration. The subsequent data sets, Data 
Sets 2 to 8, are absolute distance calibrations. 

No facility currently available at NIST allows for long distance (> 100 m) calibration. 
Therefore, the absolute distance calibrations were conducted at the following four locations: 1.) 
Metrology Building, Bldg. 220 (60 m maximum clear line of sight) 2.) Building Research, 
Bldg. 226 («1 10 m maximum clear line of sight) 3.) Corridor spanning several buildings (>150 
m maximum clear line of sight) 4.) Tunnel, Bldg. 101 (> 150 m maximum clear line of sight). 
Except for the first location (Bldg. 220), environmental control was not possible at any of these 
sites. An ideal site would provide the following requirements: 1.) environmentally controlled 
(temperature, humidity, negative and positive barometric pressure control, uniform diffuse 
lighting) with multiple sensors throughout the lab to monitor the environmental conditions 2.) 
open space that is about 10 m (width) by 150 m to 200 m (length) 3.) controlled access into lab 
for eye safety and for ease of calibration (i.e., view of target not obscured by personnel walking 
between the target the scanner), 4) level concrete floor for installation of permanent benchmarks, 
and 5) diffuse black walls and floor. 


2.1 Data Set 1 - Effect of Color on Range Accuracy 

This set of measurements was conducted in an enclosed temperature controlled room located in 
the Metrology Building, Building 220 with fluorescent lighting where the temperature was held 
at approximately 20 °C. The maximum range achievable in this room is about 60 m. A 
heterodyne interferometer was used as the basis of comparison for the laser measurements. The 
accuracy of the interferometer is (0.93 pm/m) / °C and (0.36 pm/m) / mm of Hg (reference to 
20 °C and 1013 hPa). The environmental conditions for the experiments in Data Set 1 are given 
in Table 2.2. 


Table 2.2. Environmental Conditions for Data Set 1. 


Test Date 

Temperature 

(°C) 

Relative Humidity 
(%) 

Barometric Pressure 
(hPa) 

Start 

End 

Start 

End 

Start 

End 

July 14, 1999 

20.8 

20.8 

45.5 

45.0 

1005.7 

1004.6 

July 15, 1999 

20.1 

20.1 

49.3 

49.2 

1007.3 

1006.6 

Aug. 2, 1999 

20.0 

20.4 

49.4 

49.5 

999.3 

999.3 


6 


The interferometer was set up at one end of the test bench and the laser scanner was set up 
slightly behind it. The target was mounted on top of a small trolley that travels the length of the 
test bench along a guided rail. Comparisons using the interferometer were relative distance 
comparisons. For example, the target was set at some arbitrary distance, usually 2 m to 3 m, in 
front of the interferometer and a zero reading was obtained to this target. Distances thereafter 
were relative to this initial starting point. In the case of the laser scanner, the measurement 
obtained to the target set at the start point represented the distance from the target to the scanner 
and was used as the zero offset for measurements taken thereafter. 

The procedure involved both setting up the target and leveling the trolley. Readings were then 
obtained at the initial position from both the interferometer and the scanner. The target was 
moved 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, 8 m, 10 m, 15 m, 20 m, 30 m, 40 m, and 50 m beyond the start point. At 
each point, including the initial point, the distance was measured 25 times. 

The target was made by mounting a piece of letter size [216 mm x 279 mm (8.5 in x 1 1 in)], 
colored paper to a piece of cardboard. The colors were white, green, yellow, pink, gray, and 
black. All the targets were smooth except for the gray target. The gray rough target was a sheet 
of 80 grit sand paper. To make the target shiny, the target was placed inside a plastic, protective 
cover. The data for these tests are given in Table A.l. 


2.2 Data Set 2 - Effect of Distance (0 m to 60 m) on Range Accuracy 

The same temperature-controlled location used for collecting Data Set 1 was also used for the 
first series of absolute distance measurements. Several collinear points (benchmarks), marked by 
ball bearings, are permanently set in the floor at specified spacings. The maximum distance 
between the two farthest points is 60.96 m. 

The calibration procedure involved centering the scanner above one of the benchmarks and 
centering the target over another benchmark using a tribrach with an optical plummet. Twenty- 
five measurements were taken at each point. The scanner was set up at the “zero” mark and the 
target (white, not shiny) set up 30.48 m and 60.96 m from the scanner. The data from these tests 
are given in Table B.l. The environmental conditions were not recorded. 

To determine the measurement error due to environmental factors, a short parametric study was 
conducted. The corrections for a distance of 1 00 m were computed for the following 
combinations of environmental conditions: temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C, barometric pressure 
of 1000 hPa and 1015 hPa, relative humidity of 20% and 50%, and CO 2 concentration of 
0.027% and 0.033 % (0.03% ±10%). The maximum correction for 100 m was +1.5 mm 
(generally occurred for cases when the temperature was 30 °C). Assuming the environmental 
conditions were similar to those for Data Set 1 (20 °C, 50 % RH, 1000 hPa, 0.03 % CO 2 ), 
measurement error from environmental factors was +0.6 mm for 100 m. Thus, in this report, 
measurement errors from environmental factors are considered negligible compared to 
instrument error. 


7 


2.3 Data Set 3 - Extension of Data Set 2 (60 m to 108 ra) 


As the maximum calibration distance was 60.96 m (200 ft) for Data Set 2, two other locations 
were found that allowed for longer distance measurements. One location was the attic of the 
Building Research building. Bldg. 226. However, this location was neither environmentally 
controlled nor air-conditioned. The maximum distance at this location was about 108 m. 

In the attic location, the distances between markers were measured with a tape measure. The 
distance ranged from 60 m to 108 m (measurements were taken to augment the data obtained in 
the environmentally controlled lab, Data Set 2; hence no measurements were taken at the shorter 
distances). Only one color target was used, white not shiny, and 25 measurements were taken at 
each distance. The target size was 216 mm x 279 mm (8.5 in x 11 in). The distance 
measurements were obtained on two different days, Jul. 28, 1999 and Aug. 2, 1999. The 
recorded temperature in the attic for the runs on Jul. 28, 1999 was 27.8 °C. No temperature was 
recorded for the tests on Aug. 2, 1999; however, based on data from the National Weather 
Service, the daily temperatures for Jul. 28, 1999 and Aug. 2, 1999 were comparable. The data 
from these tests are given in Table B.2. 

The procedure used to center the scanner and target over a point on the floor is the same. It 
involves setting up a surveying tripod over the point, leveling a tribrach that is attached to the 
tripod, centering the tribrach over the point on the floor using the optical plummet, installing the 
scanner/target in a tribrach and locking it in, and re-leveling and re-centering the tribrach as 
needed. 


2.4 Data Set 4 - Effect of Distance (5 m to 160 m) on Range Accuracy 

Since the calibration distance for Data Set 3 was limited to 108 m, another location had to be 
found to determine the range accuracy at 150 m, the scanner’s maximum range. The location 
selected was a hallway that spanned several buildings and offered a clear distance of at least 
150 m. One side of the hallway that connected the buildings consisted of large glass windows, 
causing temperature variations along its length. However, all the buildings and hallways were 
air-conditioned and the temperature should be closer on average to the temperature of 20 °C than 
in the attic location (see Section 2.2 for discussion of measurement errors due to environmental 
factors). 

The calibration distances in the hallway ranged from 5 m to 161 m. Markers were laid on the 
floor and the distances from the markers to a reference zero position were measured using a total 
station. The overall accuracy of the total station was ± 3 mm. The targets were white not shiny, 
green not shiny and black not shiny and the size of the targets was 216 mm x 279 mm (8.5 in x 
1 1 in). To increase eye safety indoors, a filter was provided to reduce the energy of the laser. To 
determine the effect of the filter on the range accuracy, a series of measurements were made 
using the black not shiny and green not shiny targets. One set of measurements was obtained 
with the filter attached and another without the filter. In the previous calibrations, 25 
measurements were obtained at each distance; however, it was decided that 10 measurements 
were sufficient to assess repeatability. Therefore, for this and subsequent data sets, 10 


8 


measurements were obtained at each distance. Data for these experiments are given in Table 
B.3. 


2.5 Data Set 5 - Effect of Distance (10 m to 150 m) on Range Accuracy and Effect of 
Distance on Intensity Value 

The calibrations described above (Data Sets 1 to 4) were aimed at getting a rough estimate of the 
general accuracy of the scanner and determining if the range accuracy and precision were 
dependent on material color. A further calibration was to characterize the scanner’s range 
accuracy and to determine if there were any patterns in the intensity. Rather than using the 
location used for Data Set 4, an alternate location was found where the lighting and temperature 
would be more uniform throughout the length of hallway. This location was in a “tunnel” (long 
underground hallway) of Bldg. 101 of NIST. There are no windows along the tunnel. The 
calibration distances ranged from 10 m to 150 m. The various distances from the zero or 
reference point were obtained using a total station with an accuracy of ± 3 mm. 

Based on a preliminary review of Data Sets 1 to 4, it was decided that only 3 colors would be 
used - white, black, and shiny silver (unpainted aluminum sheet). The target size was 406 mm 
(16 in) wide by 508 mm (20 in) long. The target size was chosen so that it would be larger than 
the size of the laser beam at 1 50 m. 

NIST is currently examining the utility of using LADAR intensity data for “reading” bar codes 
or tags for the purpose of object identification. In order to “read” the bar code, its existence has 
to be first established. To do this, the bar code has to have a unique feature or characteristic so 
that it is easily identifiable. Therefore, the bar code would have to be made of a material that 
makes it easily distinguishable from any background material based on the returned intensity 
value. It was felt that a good candidate material would be one that had a return intensity that was 
much higher than any other material commonly found at a construction site and that was 
consistently high for distances of 0 m to 150 m, i.e., intensity did not drop off with distance. 
These requirements are essential as the returned intensity is dependent on several factors - 
reflectance of object, distance to object, reflectance of the surrounding objects, lighting (e.g., 
sunlight, shade), etc. This dependency means that the intensity of a black object at 10 m could 
be the same as the intensity of a shaded white object at 50 m and there would be no way to 
determine if the object was black or white based solely on the intensity value. 

As a result, a fourth target made of 3M Long Distance Performance (LDP) material was made. 
The 3M LDP material is a reflective prismatic lens sheeting that is used for traffic signage. This 
material was chosen as it was readily available, durable, and would reflect light even if angled 
away from the light source. A photo of the LDP material and several magnified images are 
shown in Figs. 2.1 and 2.2 and it can be seen that the sheeting is made up of many small prisms. 


9 



Figure 2. 1 . Photograph of 3M LDP 



Figure 2.2a. Magnified Photo of LDP Material: Width represents 6 mm of surface. 


10 




Figure 2.2b. Magnified Photo of LDP Material: Width represents 1.5 mm of surface. 


In anticipation of the need to read bar codes angled away from the scanner, the LDP target was 
rotated to three positions - 0°, 45°, and 60° (Fig. 2.3). 



Top View of Set-up 

Figure 2.3. Rotation Orientation of LDP Target. 


For Data Set 5, ten measurements (both range and intensity) were recorded at each distance. The 
data are given in Table B.4. 


11 


2.6 Data Set 6 - Effect of Angle Incidence on Accuracy 

When conducting some simple scans of a box to test some post-processing software, the effect of 
split signals was noticed. Using the box as an example, split signals occurred when part of the 
signal hit the top of the box and the other part hit the floor beyond the box. The resulting 
instrument reported range is an interpolation between the two ranges. This creates “phantom 
points” (Fig. 2.4) - points that do not actually exist. 



Figure 2.4. Point Cloud of Box Showing Phantom Points. 


As stated by the manufacturer, the size of the laser beam as it exits the scanner is 42 mm (high) 
by 25 mm (wide). The beam has a divergence of 3 mrad, horizontal and vertical. This translates 
into a beam size of 342 mm (high) x 325 mm (wide) at 100 m. As a result of this large beam size 
and the splitting of the beam, it is probable that the range accuracy will be affected by the angle 
of incidence (see Fig. 2.3) - the greater the angle and the longer the distance, the more adverse 
the effect. 

To determine the effect of the angle of incidence on range accuracy, the same three targets used 
for Data Set 5 were reused - white, black and shiny silver (uncoated aluminum). For these tests, 
the targets were rotated from 0° to 90° in increments of 10° (measurements were also obtained at 
85°) with 10 measurements taken at each angle of incidence. The distance ranged from 10 m to 


12 



100 m in increments of 10 m. The location of the tests was the attic of Bldg. 226. The distances 
from the zero reference point were measured with a tape measure . 

The conduct of these tests was more difficult than those of the previous tests. Since the tests 
involved rotating the target, it was important that the center of the laser beam coincide with the 
center of the target. This presented some difficulty as the scanner utilized an infrared (IR) laser 
(A = 903 nm) and the laser was pulsed with a duration of 17 ns. As the main purpose of the 
scanner is to acquire data of a scene, the scanner could not be set up to automatically take the 
same point measurement repeatedly. 

To find the center of the laser beam, an IR viewer was used to see the projection of the laser on 
the target. In order to see the laser projection through the IR viewer, the vicinity of the target 
had to be semi-dark for shorter distances (approximately 20 m or less) and be in total darkness 
for longer distances, because of the low laser power output. The procedure used to co-locate the 
beam center with the target center is as follows: 

1 . Set-up target over desired distance and attach a sheet of paper to the target. 

2. Find the center of the target and mark it on the paper. Make a mark that is 79 mm 
(3.125 in) above the center mark (see Fig. 2.5). 



3. Align the crosshairs of the laser scanner riflescope with mark A (Fig. 2.5) on the 
target. 

4. Turn off lights. 

5. Have one person at the target with an IR viewer and another at the scanner control. 

6. Have the person at the target outline the beam with a marker as the person at the 
control fires the laser in rapid succession. 

7. Repeat Step 6 with a different person outlining the beam. 

8. Turn lights on. 

9. Find the center of the beam - visually. 


* As the objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of angle of incidence and not to determine range 
accuracy, the reference distances were measured with a tape measure rather than with a total station. 


13 


10. If center of the beam does not coincide with center of the target, make the necessary 
rotations to the scanner to align the two centers and repeat Steps 4 to 10. If it does, 
continue with calibration. 

Some notes about the above alignment process: 

1 . Step 6 - outlining the beam 

a. This step is very subjective, which is the main reason why a second person 
repeated the procedure (Step 7). 

b. The difficulty in outlining the beam was increased by the need for semi- to total 
darkness. It was very difficult to see where the pen was on the paper to assure 
that what was being outlined was indeed what was seen. For future tests, it may 
be easier if some type of fluorescent tape were attached near the tip of the marker 
so that it is visible in the dark. 

c. Triggering of laser - for safety reasons, the laser only fires when the scanner is in 
motion, i.e., when it is scanning. For the calibration, the scanner was set up to 
acquire only one data point. The inability of the laser to fire continuously so that 
the projection of the beam could be seen more clearly increased the difficulty in 
outlining the beam. 

Another issue that should be considered is the uncertainty of the pointing 
accuracy of the scanner. When the scanner obtains a point scan, it moves off the 
point to the next point. It therefore has to move back to the previous point to take 
another scan of the “same” point. This issue was not considered at this stage as 1) 
determining the pointing accuracy of the scanner would be an entire project in 
itself and 2) the contribution to the total error from this issue is insignificant 
compared to the operator error in outlining the beam. 

d. The second person was not biased by the results of the first person as the 
markings on the paper were not visible, due to the total darkness, when the second 
person was outlining the beam. 

2. In all cases except for one, visual inspection of the target showed that the centers of 
the beam and target were aligned after the first attempt and there was no need for 
further adjustments to reposition the scanner; the minimum movement of the scanner 
is limited by the minimum resolution of the stepper motor, i.e, the minimum angle 
between scan points. In the one instance where the centers did not coincide, only 
small adjustments were necessary to align the centers of the beam and the target. 
This indicates that the riflescope was aligned with the axis of the laser beam and that 
the alignment performed in Step 3 would yield a good aligmnent of the target with the 
scanner. 


The data collection for this set was accomplished over a period of 3 nonconsecutive days. The 
environmental conditions when the data were collected are given in Table 2.3. On Feb. 26 and 


14 


27, 2002, the objective of the tests was to gather additional information on beam size as a 
function of distance and not to gather additional information on distance accuracy as a function 
of angle of incidence. 


Table 2.3. Environmental Conditions for Data Set 6. 


Date 

Distance 

(m) 

Temperature 

(°C) 

Relative Humidity 
(%) 

Barometric Pressure 
(hPa) 


Start 

End 

Start 

End 

Start 

End 

Nov. 1, 2001 

10 

25.1 

25.7 

33.2 

33.5 

1007.0 

1007.0 

Nov. 5, 2001 

20 

23.8 

23.8 

26.5 

26.5 

1001.5 

1002.0 

Nov. 5, 2001 

30 

24.0 

23.8 

27.0 

26.5 

1001.5 

1001.5 

Nov. 28, 2001 

40 

22.5 

23.6 

38.5 

40.0 

1005.0 

1005.5 

Nov. 28, 2001 

50 

23.6 

24.6 

40.0 

38.3 

1005.5 

1005.0 

Nov. 28, 2001 

60 

25.2 

25.4 

34.2 

35.0 

1005.0 

1004.0 

Nov. 28, 2001 

70 

25.4 

25.6 

35.0 

34.5 

1004.0 

1004.5 

Nov. 28, 2001 

80 

25.6 

25.6 

34.5 

38.5 

1004.5 

1005.0 

Nov. 28, 2001 

90 

25.6 

25.4 

38.5 

38.5 

1005.0 

1005.0 

Nov. 28, 2001 

100 

25.4 

25.2 

38.5 

37.2 

1005.0 

1005.5 

Feb. 26, 2002 

90, 5, 2 

29.1 

27.5 

28 

28 

987 

984 

Feb. 27, 2002 

100,2 

22.8 

23.7 

25 

25 

989 

989 


2.7 Data Set 7 -Spatial Correlation 

This data set was designed to give initial estimates of spatial correlation for the simplest of 
LADAR scans: replicated points along closely spaced adjacent strips. The data acquisition was 
very simple. The procedure involved obtaining 3 vertical scan lines with each scan repeated 1 0 
times (see Fig. 2.7). The variables in the experiment were the vertical and horizontal angle 
increments (0.045°, 0.090°, and 0.180°) - the vertical distance, v, between points. Twenty-five 
measurements per line were obtained for each line. The target was located 10 m from the 
scanner and was a sheet of plywood (4 ft x 8 ft) that was painted white. The data for this data set 
are given in Table B.6 in Appendix B. 


15 


i 


i 



LADAR 



Flat surface - 
plywood 
sheet painted 
white 



Figure 2.7. Schematic of Test Set-up. 


2.8 Data Set 8 - Autocorrelation 

The distance to the “same” point was measured 1 00 times to test the presence of autocorrelation. 
For this data set, the scanner was set up at about 20 m from a target. Once the scanner was set 
up, measurements were obtained by firing the laser and then manually recording the 
measurement - this procedure was repeated 100 times. The data are given in Table B.7, in 
Appendix B. 


16 


3.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 


This chapter has been organized by the examination of specific effects rather than by a sequential 
discussion of each data set. The effect of color is presented in Section 3.1 and the data from 
Data Sets 1 to 6 are included. A discussion of the effect of target color/reflectivity and distance 
on intensity, Data Set 5, is given in Section 3.2. The effects of angle of incidence, Data Set 5 
and 6, are presented in Section 3.3, and beam divergence, Data Set 6, is discussed in Section 3.4. 
Discussions of autocorrelation, Data Set 8, and covariance, Data Set 7, are given in Section 3.5. 


3.1 Color 

3.1.1 Data Set 1 


Table 3.1 gives the slopes with associated standard uncertainties from ordinary linear least- 
squares fits of LADAR distance measurements versus interferometer distance measurements. In 
addition to the slope and its standard uncertainty, residual standard deviations from the fitted line 
are also reported in Table 3.1. The residual standard deviation is computed as the square root of 
the sum of squares of the deviations from the fitted line (residuals) divided by the degrees of 
freedom, (N -2), where N is the number of points and “2” represents the two parameter 
constraints (slope and intercept). 

In Table 3.1, two sets of numbers are given for the slope, standard uncertainty and residual 
standard deviation: “Replicate” and “Averaged”. The values for the column labeled “Replicate” 
were obtained by fitting all the data points as though they were replicates. However, the points 
were not true replicates because the instrument was set up once and the points were taken in 
quick succession without the instrument being taken down and set up again after each distance 
measurement. Therefore, an average of the laser measurements at each distance was also fitted 
as a function of the interferometer distance, and the associated statistics for the regression fits are 
shown under the column labeled “Averaged” in Table 3.1. 


Table 3.1. Data Set 1 : Slopes and Standard Uncertainties From Regression Fits. 


Color/texture 

Slope 

Standard Uncertainty 
of Slope (m) 

Residual Std. Dev. 

(m) 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

White, smooth, not shiny 

1.0070 

1.0070 

0.0005 

0.0026 

0.1305 

0.1354 

White, smooth, shiny 

0.9989 

0.9988 

0.0001 

0.0002 

0.0254 

0.0117 

Black, smooth, not shiny 

1.0034 

1.0032 

0.0002 

0.0004 

0.0334 

0.0145 

Black, smooth, shiny 

1.0029 

1.0029 

0.0001 

0.0004 

0.0372 

0.0227 

Dark gray, rough, not 
shiny 

1.0032 

1.0032 

0.0002 

0.0005 

0.0394 

0.0177 

Yellow, smooth, not 
shiny 

0.9992 

0.9992 

0.0001 

0.0003 

0.0258 

0.0173 

Pink, smooth, not shiny 

1.0001 

1.00005 

0.0002 

0.0007 

0.0412 

0.0360 

Green, smooth, not shiny 

0.9993 

0.9993 

0.0001 

0.0005 

0.0294 

0.0232 

Green, smooth, not shiny 

0.9995 

0.9994 I 0.0001 

0.0005 

0.0301 

0.0246 


17 


There are no gross differences between the slopes and standard uncertainties for replicate versus 
the average case. In both cases, there is no gross variation in slope and standard uncertainty 
across different color/texture combinations. The somewhat elevated standard uncertainty for the 
white, smooth, not shiny target may be because of it being the first experiment run. Variations 
observed (not reported here) in the intercept can be attributed to the relative nature of the 
distance measurements and are therefore of no interest. The replicate standard deviations 
consistently dominate the averaged residual standard deviations (with the exception of the 
aberrant white/ smooth/not shiny), as we would expect. The average deviation from fit error for 
multiple lines should exceed that for a single (averaged) line. The replicate standard deviations 
exceed the manufacturer’s specified accuracy of ± 2 cm for all cases, whereas the averaged are 
much closer to the manufacturer’s specification for most cases. 

Application of a formal statistical test [Sachs, 1982] for the equality of slopes of least-squares 
fitted lines of the replicated data, in this case very large N (« 2 357) formally rejects the null 
hypothesis of equality of slopes. This is in agreement with the conclusion that would be drawn 
from comparing estimated slopes ± 2 c in Table 3.1, and is, at least in part, a consequence of the 
large sample sizes (« 275) associated with each of the individual line fits. Here, however, the 
formal test is of little direct utility. We find the more broadly applicable conclusions of the 
graphical analyses of range- and color dependent precisions and biases to be much more 
informative. 

A plot of the accuracy, or bias, as a function of color and surface roughness for Data Set 1 is 
shown in Fig. 3.1. In Fig. 3.1, the terms “tall post” and “short post” refer to a post that was 
located slightly behind the target. In the case of the “tall post”, the post extended above the 
target, while for the “short post” the post did not extend above the target. The calibration with 
the “short post” was undertaken to determine if the presence of the “tall post” contributed to the 
measurement errors. When no “tall” or “short” post is indicated, a “short” post was used. 

The red dashed lines in Fig. 3.1 indicate the stated instrument accuracy of ± 2 cm. From Fig. 
3.1, several observations can be made: 

1 . Pink, not shiny stands out as being biased consistently (i.e., independent of distance) low 
with respect to the nominally “true” reading. 

2. Dark gray and black targets are biased consistently high with the accuracy decreasing 
with increasing distance from the target. The precision of the measurements for these 
targets is also seen to decrease with increasing distance. 

3. Green and yellow lie closer to the “truth”. 

4. There is a visible stratification of target types indicating an unambiguous color/roughness 
effect for accuracy. 


General notes: 1) Throughout this report, error is used to denote: Error = Measurement - “truth”. 2) 
Solid/dashed red lines in figures indicate stated instrument accuracy of ± 2 cm. 


18 


0.5 


o 



o Wht, not shiny, tail post 

o Wht. not shiny, short post 

o Wht, shiny, tall post 

a Blck. not shiny 

• Blck. shiny 

❖ Dk. Gray, rough 

Pink, not shiny 

Yellow, not shiny 

Green, not shiny 

o 

❖ a 0 

❖ 

* a ® 

□ * 

O n n o 0 a 

’ © ■ $ ’ ' • □ 

0 

6-m v o 

• ,, ' v 1 n 

<> 0 TO © 2 X) 3Q} 40 w 

: o ° o * q 


Distance (m) 


Figure 3.1 Data Set 1: Error vs. Distance 
(Error = Mean laser distance - Interferometer distance). 

Figure 3.2 shows the scatter of the replicated laser measurements from Data Set 1 as a function 
of color/roughness and distance from the target. Here, standard deviation denotes the ordinary 
sample standard deviation (“s”) computed over the replicated points at each fixed nominal 
distance. 

Again, some patterns are readily detected in the figure. White targets are noisier in the 0 m to 
20 m range, and black targets exhibit the largest variation in the 30 m to 50 m range. 


19 


0.12 


£ 

o 

ts 

> 

4) 

Q 

■u 

■3 

£ 

CO 


0.10 


0.08 


0.06 


0.04 


0.02 


0.00 


10 


20 


30 

Distance (m) 


40 


50 


° □ 




<> 

D □ d 

□ 

o Wht. not shiny, tall post 
□ Wht.not shiny, short post 
O Wht. shiny, tall post 
■ Blck, not shiny 
• Blck. shiny 
<• Dk. Gray, rough 

Pink, not shiny 

Yellow, not shiny 

Green, not shiny 

o n ^ ~ 

o o o o 

□ Q □ 

D o 0 

° 5 o 

. O a 0 g * 

O & m n P c> 

. M , - 4 * 


a O 

O 

♦ 




60 


Figure 3.2. 


Data Set 1 : Standard Deviation of Laser Measurements. 


Figures 3.3a to 3.3f give a different representation of the data shown in Figs. 3.1 and 3.2. 
Accuracy and standard deviation (error bars in the figure) are plotted on the same plot for each 
color, separately. The observations made for the pink, yellow and green targets are also seen in 
Figs. 3.3d, e, and f. Some observations that are not so obvious in Figs. 3.1 and 3.2 can be 
appreciated in Figs. 3.3a, b, and c. In Fig. 3.3a (white target), the stratification in accuracy 
across the three targets represented is clear, offset only by the obvious white, not shiny, tall post 
highliers at 40 m and 50 m. The standard deviations for the material with the higher reflectance 
(shiny) are smaller than for the material with less reflectance (not shiny). Figures 3.3b and 3.3c 
(black and dark gray targets, respectively) show a clear decrease in both accuracy and 
repeatability as a function of increasing distance. For the black target, the one with the higher 
reflectance (shiny) shows a slightly lower error and greater repeatability than the target with 
lower reflectance. 

The errors for the white, black, green, and yellow targets are seen to generally conform to the 
± 2 cm specification, although the errors for the black target begin to deviate beyond 20 m. The 
pink and dark gray targets, on the other hand, exceed the specification almost immediately, and 
throughout the entire measured range. 


20 


Error (m) Error (m) 


0.6 




a. White b. Black 



0 10 20 30 40 50 


Distance (m) 
c. Dark gray 



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 


Distance (m) 
d. Pink 


Figure 3.3. Data Set 1 : Error Plots (Error bars = la). 


21 


Error (m) 


0.6 


_ 

— 

— 

O Yellow, not shiny - 
















; 












■ T , 

T , 

L i 

E, 




U> H' T T 


7 " 't 

m 






1 

? : 

; 









l 


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 


; 

— 


! 

O Green, not shiny ‘ 




; 






; 






; 











; 






: 

S' (1) -L (f) 


1 ® 

r t 

X "t X XI' 

. 

¥ 

> 

P 


; 









■ 


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 


Distance (m) 
e. Yellow 


Distance (m) 
f. Green 


Continue Figure 3.3. Data Set 1 : Error Plots (Error bars = la). 


Summary for Data Set 1: Global goodness-of-fit or precision statistics do NOT exhibit any gross 
color/texture-specific pattern, while localized precision estimates, in some cases, do exhibit clear 
patterns. Most prominent are color specific inaccuracies in distance measurement, with the black 
target being biased high (beyond the specifications of the instrument), white and pink targets 
biased low, and colors in between the two extremes giving the most accurate readings. 


3.1.2 Data Set 4 


Table 3.2 shows the coefficients and statistics for the linear regression fits for Data Set 4 - the 
first data set where distances ranged from 5 m to 150 m. The notation “with Filter” or “Filter” 
refers to the case when a filter was attached to the front of the LADAR and the term “without 
Filter” or “No filter” refers to the case when the filter was removed. The filter was supplied by 
the manufacturer to reduce the output power of the FADAR for additional eye safety in indoor 
environments. It is expected that the data acquired with the filter attached would exhibit larger 
error and variability. 

As seen in Table 3.2, comparison of the slopes for the black and green targets show little 
difference in the slopes and intercepts for the case of “with” and “without” filter. The F-test does 
not reject the null hypothesis of equality of slopes. However, for the black target, the residual 
standard deviation (RESSD) is reduced by (50 to 60) % when the filter was removed, i.e., the 
data were more precise without the filter. The results for the green target are inconclusive 
regarding precision and the presence of the filter. 


22 


Table 3.2 Data Set 4: Slopes and Standard Uncertainties From Regression Fits. 


Target 

Slope 

Intercept (m) 

Standard l 
of Slo 

Jncertainty 
pe (m) 

RESSD (m) 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

With Filter 

Black, not shiny 

1.0010 

1.0010 

-0.0304 

-0.0304 

0.00013 

0.00029 

0.07382 

0.05298 

Green, not shiny 

1.0001 

1 .0002 

0.0252 

0.0211 

0.00014 

0.00014 

0.08347 

0.02586 

Without Filter 

Black, not shiny 

1 .0000 

1.0002 

0.0266 

0.0208 

0.00008 

0.00025 

0.04568 

0.03526 

Green not shiny 

1.0000 

1 .0000 

0.0153 

0.0153 

0.00009 

0.00022 

0.05090 

0.03088 

White, not shiny 

1.0001 

1.0001 

0.0286 

0.0282 

0.00005 

0.00010 

0.02918 

0.01763 


Figures 3.4a and 3.4b show the error as a function of distance to the target for Data Set 4. Figure 
3.4a shows the errors when no filter was attached to the LADAR. Fig. 3.4b shows the errors 
when the filter was attached to the LADAR. 



Distance (m) 

Figure 3.4a. Data Set 4: Error vs. Distance. 
No Filter on LADAR 


23 



Distance (m) 

Figure 3.4b. Data Set 4: Error vs. Distance. 
Filter on LADAR 


In the “No Filter” figure (Fig. 3.4a), there is a subtle but unmistakable stratification between 
green and white targets, with white errors dominating across most of the range, specifically in 
the 0 m to 50 m and in the 100 m to 160 m regions. The errors attributed to the black target, in 
contrast, meander and intermix throughout the plot. 

In the “With Filter” figure (Fig. 3.4b), there is no apparent color effect, although the error 
increases noticeably for both colors in the 140 m to 160 m range. It appears that the combination 
of reduced power due to the presence of the filter and dispersion of the signal strength with 
distance, and a less reflective (i.e., more absorbing) target has a significant adverse affect on the 
accuracy at the upper range of the scanner. Since Figs. 3.4a and b have the same vertical scale, 
they can be compared directly. Except for the high lying points at 140 m and 160 m, there is no 
readily apparent difference in accuracy between the filtered and unfiltered situations, contrary to 
expectations. 

The standard deviations of the errors for Data Set 4 are given in Figs. 3.5a and 3.5b. The figures 
make clear that the measurements obtained with the filter are noisier that those obtained without 
the filter for distances of 120 m to 150 m. Also, a green versus black effect is clearly visible in 
the filtered case, variabilities (standard deviations) for the black target dominating those of the 
green for almost all the distances. 


24 


Standard Deviation (m) Standard Deviation (m) 


0.16 T 


0.14 

0,12 

0.10 

0.08 

0.06 

0.04 

0.02 

0.00 

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 

Distance (m) 

Figure 3.5a. Data Set 4: Standard Deviation of Errors. 

No Filter on LADAR 


Green 
a White 
• Black 


No filter 


-A A- 


? 8 8 a a 6 


* 


A A 



Distance { m ) 

Figure 3.5b. Data Set 4: Standard Deviation of Errors. 
Filter on LADAR. 


25 


Error (m) 


Figures 3.6a to 3.6c break out the data from Figs. 3.4 and 3.5, a color at a time. Figures 3.6 
reinforce the conclusions from Figs. 3.5, except that in addition, these figures make clear that (1) 
in ah cases, variability increases with increased distance, and the consequent tendency for points 
to fall outside the specification ± 2 cm and (2) this heteroscedastic effect - in the case of length 
metrology - is especially pronounced for the filtered black and green cases. 




a. White b. Black 


E 

w 

o 

i— 

LU 






I 1 

♦ Green w/o filter 
a Green w/ filter 





















- 


! i._ 

; i 



I 





TI* 

♦ 

k t t ...... 




T 



L I 








I 



















0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 


Distance (m) 


c. Green 

Figure 3.6. Data Set 4: Error Plots (Error bars = lo) 


26 


Summary for Data Set 4: No marked filter or color effect is observed in the global line statistics. 
But subtle effects are observed with respect to localized precision and statistics, and significant 
effects with respect to accuracy. The presence of the filter significantly increases the error and 
noise for the black target (least reflective) at the upper range of the scanner. 


3.1.3 Data Set 5 


The locations at which the data for Data Sets 1 to 3 were collected did not allow for the 
calibration of the maximum range of the LADAR. The locations at which the data for Data Sets 
4 and 5 were collected did allow for calibration of the maximum range of the LADAR. 
However, the location for Data Set 5 was felt to be more environmentally controlled than the 
location of Data Set 4 (see Section 2.4). Therefore, for these reasons in addition to the fact that 
more experienced was gained by the time the data for Data Set 5 was collected, the data in Data 
Set 5 is considered to be more reliable for the evaluation of range accuracy and precision as a 
function of color and distance. 

The coefficients for the regression fits for Data Set 5 are shown in Table 3.3. As with the 
previous data sets, there are no gross differences among the slopes and standard uncertainties of 
the slope except for the LDP, 60° target which has a standard uncertainty that is significantly 
higher than the rest, although, the formal F-test does reject the null hypothesis of the equality of 
slopes. The residual standard deviations for the black, white, and silver shiny targets are within 
about 10 % of each other and are slightly over the specified accuracy of ± 2 cm. The residual 
standard deviation for the LDP, 0° target is about 25 % greater that the average of the black, 
white, and silver, shiny targets. As expected, the residual standard deviation increased for 
increased angle of incidence - significantly greater than the ± 2 cm specified limits. Further 
comparisons of the LDP targets will be made in Section 3.3 (angle of incidence). Discussions in 
this section will generally include only the first four targets listed in Table 3.3 since are they are 
comparable, i.e, the angle of incidences for these four targets are 0°. 


Table 3.3. Data Set 5: Slopes and Standard Uncertainties from Regression Fits. 


Target 

Slope 

Intercept 

Standard Uncertainty 
of Slope (m) 

RESSD 

(m) 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Replicate 

Averaged 

Black 

1.0001 

1.0001 

-0.0104 

-0.0110 

0.00007 

0.00016 

0.03875 

0.02734 

White 

0.9995 

0.9995 

0.0210 

0.0200 

0.00007 

0.00018 

0.03501 

0.03040 

Silver, Shiny 

1.0001 

1.0001 

-0.0254 

-0.0256 

0.00004 

0.00005 

0.02159 

0.00878 

LDP, 0° 

0.9987 

0.9987 

0.1128 

0.1132 

0.00007 

0.00021 

0.03862 

0.03563 

LDP, 45° 

0.9997 

0.9996 

-0.0200 

-0.0193 

0.00009 

0.00027 

0.04646 

0.04464 

LDP, 60° 

1.0001 

1.0000 | 0.0010 

0.0029 

0.00013 

0.00041 

0.06778 

0.06844 


The errors and standard deviations of the errors for Data Set 5 are shown in Figs. 3.7 and 3.8, 
respectively. In Fig. 3.7, the high reflectance of the LDP target induces significant error in the 
distance measurement for distances of 20 m or less. Overall, the LDP trace appears to linearly 
increase through the entire range. The large errors for the LDP target in the shorter distances 
(0 m to 50 m) are likely a result of the detector being saturated by the strong return signal of the 


27 


highly reflective material. Furthermore, these errors are biased low, that is, the target appears 
closer than in actuality. These observations were also noted by Collier [1998]. Reflectance is 
seen in this case to contribute directly to inaccuracy in the distance measurements. 


0.15 


o.io 


0.05 


£ o.oo 
o 

l2 -0-05 


■ 0.10 


-0.15 


- 0.20 


; □ 


O 

« “a □ □ a • 

l_A.a__q._5_ 

□ D A i 8 H A ® A • 

® m n - * 

« Black 

□ White 

a Silver, shiny 

b LDP, 0° 

• ; _ * . _ ; « . 

o 

Q 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


20 40 60 80 100 

Distance (m) 


120 


140 


160 


Figure 3.7. Data Set 5: Error vs. Distance. 
(Error = Mean laser distance - total station distance). 


There are no obvious patterns for repeatability, or standard deviations of the replicated 
measurements, for most of the targets in Fig. 3.8: the values for white, silver shiny and LDP 
targets do not stand out in terms of increased or decreased or stratified noisiness. Black, 
however, does pull apart from the other three in the 80 m to 150 m range: the black 
measurements for this range are distinctly noisier than those for the other three targets. 


28 


0.045 

0.040 

0.035 

? 

g 0.030 
o 

•g 0.025 

0) 

D 

■O 0.020 
L- 

(3 

E 0.015 

(S 

4 =» 

c n 

o.oio 

0.005 

0.000 


o 

. .. - _ . o . 0 


o 

o 

ft 

° A 0 

u ^ A 

« Black 

□ White 

a Silver, shiny 

» LDP, 0 9 

Q , D □ 

g D * • * 0 • e 

a ' ° 1 o' * a i 

n A D □ 

° A * □ 


A □ □ * # 

A 

• 




20 40 60 80 100 

Distance (m) 


120 


140 


160 


Figure 3.8. Data Set 5: Standard Deviation of Error of Laser Measurements. 


Figures 3.9a to 3.9d break out the data from Figs. 3.7 and 3.8, a color at a time. The figures 
display clearly the degraded accuracy of the LDP target at 0 m to 40 m, and again, the roughly 
linear rise of the LDP error from negative to positive bias. While the sliver and black targets 
results appear relatively tame, the accuracy for the white target decreases steadily for distances 
beyond 120 m. Again, the error bars of Fig. 3.9a clearly show that the black target is noisier than 
the other targets in the 80 m to 150 m range. This decrease in precision with increase distance 
was also noted in Data Set 4; however, this phenomenon was noted for all targets - black, white, 
and green - and not just for the black target as is the case in Data Set 5. 


29 


Error (m) 




a. Black 


b. White 



0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 



0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 


Distance (m) Distance (m) 

c. Silver d. LDP, 0° 


Figure 3.9. Data Set 5: Error Plots (Error bars = la). 

Summary of Data Set 5: Effects appear both in the consideration of localized precision statistics 
and overall residual error, and very noticeable effects are seen on accuracy, particularly in the 
case of the LDP target. It is clear that reflectance properties can have very real effects on the 
accuracy of the distance measurements. 


30 


3. 1 .4 Combined Data Sets 


Figures 3.10a and 3.10b show the errors and standard deviations for white and black targets 
cumulated from Data Sets 1 to 6. From Fig. 3.10a, there is no pronounced black versus white 
effect although about half of the data fall outside the specified instrument accuracy. In 
Fig. 3.10b, a clear pattern can be discerned. The measurements of white targets are noisier in the 
0 m to 50 m range while the black targets are noisier in the 60 m to 150 m range with a linear 
increase above the 100 m range. In fact, it appears that the repeatability for the white targets 
goes roughly linearly down across the range of distances presented by the data while the 
repeatability for the black targets goes approximately linearly up. 



Distance (m) 


Figure 3. 10a. Combined Errors for White and Black 
Targets from Data Sets 1 to 6. 


31 


0.16 


0.14 


^ 0.12 

g 

C 

o 

nj 

> 

0.08 

Q 

■D 

■o 
c 
n 

Crt 


0.10 


0.06 


0.04 


0.02 


0.00 


O — Cr 

OOO. 


V , 


t 


. * 


1 s 


m ° o o 


20 40 60 80 100 

Distance (m) 


120 


-m> ■■ 


o White 
■ Black 


140 


160 


Figure 3.10b. Standard Deviations for White and Black 
Targets from Data Sets 1 to 6. 


3.2 Intensity 

A plot of the intensity versus distance to the target is shown in Fig. 3.11. As seen in Fig. 3.11, 
the intensity values for the LDP target at 0° are consistently high - 200 to 250 over the entire 
range of the scanner - and are easily distinguishable from the other targets. As expected, the 
intensity values drop off when the target is turned 45° away from the seamier - the intensity 
values for the LDP target at 45° are very similar to those for the shiny silver target at 0° and one 
could be mistaken for the other. At an angle of incidence of 60°, the intensity values for a LDP 
target would be indistinguishable from values for the white target. Although stratification of the 
intensities for white and LDP at 60° targets can be seen in Fig. 3.11, it would be hard to 
determine the color/reflectance of the object struck for each point in a scene. For example, an 
intensity value of about 90 could be for a point off an LDP target rotated at 60° at 120 m or a 
white target at 80 m or a black target at 20 m. Thus, without additional information, one would 
not be able to determine if the target was white, black or LPD rotated at 60°. Also, as mentioned 
in Section 2.2.4, the intensity values also depend on the lighting conditions and would likely be 
different in bright sunlight or in shadow. 


32 


250 


200 


150 


</> 

c 

<D 

*-< 

“ 100 


50 


8 • Q ******* 


+ 0 * ® ! g a s s □ 

+ * 1 • 

° n 1 S 

a Black 

o White 

® Silver, shiny 

X LDP, 0 Q 

□ LDP, 45 9 

+ LDP, 60 9 

T 

o * 

0 f * 

o + 

o + ; i 

a • 0 ° r + + 

o 6 e o ; i ° 

9 u u i 

* . _ .. . . . _ 


• • ® ® 


20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 

Distance (m) 


Figure 3.1 1. Data Set 5: Intensity vs. Distance. 


In Fig. 3.11, the intensity values for the black, white, and LDP at 60° targets are increasing at 
distances of 140 m and 150 m which is contrary to what would be expected. This increase may 
be attributed to the contribution of the white wall behind the target at the longer distances. The 
wall was located about 160 m from the scanner. 

The intensities from Data Set 6 are plotted in Figs. 3.12a to 3.12c. The actual intensity values 
from this data set are very similar to those from Data Set 5 and show the same sort of trends for 
the white, black, and silver targets, with the silver target displaying the most pronounced 
stratification, especially at angle of incidences of 0° and 10°. In Fig. 3.12c, the intensities for the 
targets at higher angles of incidence appear to increase as the distance increases. This increase in 
intensity is due to the fact that a larger portion of the beam is being reflected back off the white 
wall behind the target at the higher angles of incidence. 


33 


250 



Figure 3. 12a. Data Set 6: Silver Target Intensity as a Function of Distance and Angle of 

Incidence. 


250 


200 


>150 

00 

e 

<y 

«*=* 

B ioo 


50 


x 


a 

0 

A 

X 


20 


White 


5 

-£r- 


s 

■f 

-e- 


I 


40 60 80 

Distance (m) 


ioo 


o 

0 s 

■ 

10 s 


Ol 

o 

CM 

o 

30 s 

■ 

40 s 


50 9 

+ 

60® 

□ 

70® 

A 

80® 

X 

85® 

O 

90® 


120 


Figure 3.12b. Data Set 6: White Target Intensity as a Function of Distance and Angle of 

Incidence. 


34 


250 


Black 


200 


>*150 

'</> 

£ 

O 

-t=) 

£lOO 


50 

0 


Missed target and signal reflected 
off white wall behind tarset 


* 

j s * m % 

7 

1 

1 x ! 

1 

1 * 

i * = B 

■ S3 _ _ B 

a 9 

* 

a * | | 

s 



1 * * • » 

* * ! 1 

1 r 

a 

$ ■ 

1 

1 


♦ 0 s 
■ 10 2 
20 s 
• 30 s 
■ 40 s 
a 50 s 
+ 60 s 
□ 70 s 
A 80 s 
X85 9 
O 90 s 


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 

Distance (m) 


Figure 3. 12c. Data Set 6: Black Target Intensity as a Function of Distance and Angle of 

Incidence. 


Summary for Intensity data: The objective of these experiments was to find a material which 
would yield consistently high intensity values for the entire range of the scanner. A clear effect 
is seen on intensity as a function of reflectance - targets with high reflectance yield higher 
intensities. However, the intensities degrade with increasing distance. On the other hand, the 
LDP targets at 0° and 45° show less degradation than the other targets and yield consistently high 
intensities for all distances - making these targets easily distinguishable from other targets. 
These results are encouraging and indicate that the LDP material could potentially be used to 
fabricate bar codes or tags that can be read by a LADAR. 


3.3 Angle of Incidence 

3.3.1 Data Set 6 


For each rotation angle (angle of incidence) and for each target color, the measured distances 
were plotted against the actual distance (10 m to 100 m). For each of these plots, least squares 
regression lines were fitted through the points. The standard deviations of the residuals 
(averaged case) from the fitted line are given in Table 3.4 and plotted in Fig. 3.13. In Fig. 3.13, 
the maximum scale of the Y-axis was set to 1 m, and the residual standard deviations for the 
silver target at 80° and 85° rotation are greater than 1 m and are therefore not shown. 


35 


Table 3.4. Residual Standard Deviation from Linear Regression. 


g 

> 

0 ) 

o 

■d 

(/) 

t/S 

G 


1.0 

0.9 

0.8 

0.7 

0.6 

0.5 

0.4 

0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.0 


Rotation Angle 

Residual Standard Deviation (m) 

o 

White 

Black 

Silver 

0 

0.0348700 

0.0268980 

0.0206252 

10 

0.0221700 

0.0290150 

0.0238604 

20 

0.0227700 

0.0362710 

0.0667554 

30 

0.0220900 

0.0404220 

0.3260688 

40 

0.0230400 

0.0765750 

0.1 136327 

50 

0.0422800 

0.0598770 

0.4613150 

60 

0.0642100 

0.0592890 

0.5549653 

70 

0.0548600 

0.0769410 

0.6897836 

80 

0.0480000 

0.0793640 

2.5933830 

85 

0.0632800 

0.0853410 

5.0056010 

90 

0.0769480 

0.1027240 

0.0945438 


Values for silver, 80° and 85°, 
are off chart and not shown. 





: ♦ 

O White 
a Black 

# Silver 

: ♦ 

: # 


; 

❖ 

■ m * a ■ 8 o 

0 0 S 8 o B Oo 


0 20 40 60 80 100 


Rotation Angle (°) 


Figure 3.13. Data Set 6: Residual Standard Deviation. 


From Table 3.4 and Fig. 3.13, it is seen that for the white target, the residual standard deviation 
exceeded the nominal instrument accuracy for angles of incidence greater than 40°. Slightly 
degraded performance is noted for the black and silver targets. For incidence angles greater than 
10°, the residual standard deviations for the silver and black targets are greater than the stated 
accuracy of the instrument (± 2 cm). However, the residual standard deviations for the silver 


36 


target are significantly greater than those for the black target for angles of incidence between 30° 
and 85° (see discussion later in this section). 

As seen in Table 3.5, it appears that the number of misses depends on the color of the target with 
the black target (least reflective) sustaining the most misses followed by the silver and then the 
white. A “miss” is defined as a laser measurement equal to 109 m; 109 m is the distance from 
the LADAR to the wall behind target. In the case of the black target, the strength of the return 
signal was insufficient or below a threshold value required to trigger the detector whereas the 
strength of the return signal off the wall behind the target was sufficient, i.e., the black target 
absorbed more energy that the white wall. For the black target, partial misses (less than 10 
repetitions) began occurring at angle of incidence of 50° to 60° for a distance of 80 m. Total 
misses (10 repetitions) began occurring at angles of incidence greater than 70° for distances of 
70 m and 80 m and 50° for distances of 90 m and 100 m. 


37 


Table 3.5. Number of Target Misses. 


Distance 

Angie of Incidence (°) 

(m) 

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

Black 

10 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

30 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

. 0 

0 

0 

0 

40 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 . _ 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

50 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

__ 0 _ 

0 

0 

0 

1 

10 

60 

0 

0 

L 0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

10 

1 

0 

70 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

_ 0 

0 

10 

10 

10 10 

80 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

5 

9 

10 

10 10 

10 

90 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

10 

10 

10 

10 10 

10 

100 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

10 

10 

10 10 10 

10 

Silver 

10 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

30 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

40 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

50 

0 

_0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

~o 

8 

60 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

70 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

80 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

0 

0 

0 

90 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

0 

100 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

9 

10 10 

10 

0 

White 

10 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

30 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 __ 

0 

_ 0 

0 

40 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 _ 

0 

0 

50 

0 

Q 

0 

0 

0 _ 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

60 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

70 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

80 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

90 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

100 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

iiSl All Misses 

1 1 Partial Misses 


The errors as a function of distance and angle of incidence for each of the three targets are shown 
in Figs. 3.14a to 3.14c and Figs. 3.15a and 3.15b. The scales for the plots in Fig. 3.14 were set to 
be equal for ease of comparison. The data in Fig. 3.14 are re-plotted in Fig. 3.15 with enlarged 
scales for the black and white targets. From the plots, it can be seen that, in general, the 
accuracy decreases as the angle of incidence increases and more specifically, it can be seen that: 

1. The silver target yields the largest measurement errors and displays a clear angle of 
incidence effect on bias that is monotonically decreasing in angle from 80° down to 30°. 
It is especially evident, both in terms of magnitude of the bias and clean stratification of 
biases between angles, for angles of incidences of 50° and higher. 

There might be two possible explanations for the large errors for the silver target. In both 
of these hypothesized cases, the return signal is affected by external objects such as walls 


38 


around the target. In the first case, the errors may result from splitting of the signal 
whereby a portion of the signal hits the target with the remaining signal hitting the wall 
behind the target (see Section 2.6). The size of the target was selected so that the target 
was larger than the laser beam at the maximum range of the scanner (150 m). However, 
as the target is turned, the target area, as seen by the scanner, is reduced and may result in 
a split signal. The split signal phenomenon does not, however, appear to be contributing 
to the error in this situation as the errors are only observed for the silver target and not for 
the white or black targets. This hypothesis is therefore rejected. In the second case, it is 
assumed that a portion of the signal reflected off the specular target hits an object or wall 
to the side of the target and is returned to the seamier. In this case, the distance to this 
object or wall is included in the reported distance measurement - biased high or longer 
reported distances. This is appears to be the case for the silver target as seen in Fig. 
3.14a. 

2. The magnitude of the errors for angles of incidence of < 30° is similar for all targets but 
the errors for the silver target (highest reflectance) are greater thereafter. 

3. For an angle of incidence of 90°, the target as seen by the LADAR is a strip 
approximately 1 mm wide. The distance from the target should ostensibly be shorter by 
half the width of the target (0.4 m wide), i.e., the measured distance should be compared 
to the true distance minus 0.2 m. This accounts for the consistently negative biases of the 
90° measurements for all three targets. 

The averages of the errors (10 m to 90 m) for an angle of incidence of 90° are -0.312 m ± 
0.079 for silver, -0.257 m ± 0.070 m for white, and -0.232 m ± 0.053 m for black. 
Even after half the width of the target is taken into account, the errors are still large, but it 
is interesting that the instrument can differentiate an object approximately 1 mm wide 
even at 100 m. 

4. For the white target, at distances greater than 60 m, the errors appear to be increasing (in 
the negative direction) almost exponentially (Fig. 3.15a) for the higher angle of 
incidences. 

5. For the black target, there are minor angle of incidence effects. There is some 
stratification at angles of incidence of 50° and greater (Fig. 3.15b). 

A portion of the error at the higher angles of incidence for all targets may be attributed to the 
inherent procedure used to determine the range. The LADAR used in these experiments is a 
time-of-flight instrument. That is, the range is determined by measuring the return time, t, of a 
signal and is approximately equal to (c* t/2) where c = speed of light and (t/2) instead of t as t is 
the total return time. For the LADAR used in these experiments, an “averaging” of the signal 
return times occurs when no spike or distinct peak in the return signal is detected. For the case 
when the target is turned away from the scanner, the scanner detects several signal returns 
(returns from closest point to the farthest point on the angled target) or return times and an 
average time is recorded. This type of error is instrument specific and cannot be quantified 

* Values following “±”represent one standard deviation 


39 


unless more information is known about the method used to average the signal return times and 
further experiments are conducted. The required instrument information is usually not available 
from the manufacturer for proprietary reasons. 


o 

LU 


5.0 


4.0 


3.0 


2.0 


1.0 


0.0 


- 1.0 


□ 

+ 


20 


+ 


+ 


-t 

o 


-i- 


□ 

+ 


40 60 80 

Distance (m) 


Silver 


100 


♦ 0 s 
■ io 9 
20 s 
® 30 9 
a 40 9 
©50 9 
+ 60 9 
□ 70 9 
A 80 s 
X 85 9 
O90 9 


120 


Figure 3. 14a. Data Set 6: Silver Target - Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence. 
Note: Errors greater than 5 m not shown. 



Distance (m) 


Figure 3.14b. Data Set 6: White Target - Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence. 


40 


Error ( m ) Error (m) 


5.0 


Black 


4.0 


3.0 


2.0 


1.0 


0.0 


- 1.0 




20 


40 


4 £- 


60 


80 


100 



o 9 

H 

Ol 

O 


20 s 

0 

30 9 

SI 

40® 


50® 

+ 

60® 

□ 

70® 

A 

80 s 

X 

85® 

o 

90® 


120 


Distance (m) 

Figure 3.14c. Data Set 6: Black Target - Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence. 



Distance (m) 


Figure 3. 15a. Data Set 6: White Target - Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence. 

(Enlarged scale for Fig. 3.14b) 


41 


0.3 


UJ 


0.2 


0.1 


0.0 


- 0.1 


- 0.2 


-0.3 


-0.4 


20 


+ 


Jt 


A 

-f- 


+ 

i 


+ 

=s 


40 


60 


80 


Distance (m) 


100 


Black 


♦ 0 s 
B 10 s 
20 9 
• 30 9 
■ 40 9 
s 50 s 
+ 60 9 
□ 70 s 
A80 9 
X 85® 
O90 9 


120 


Figure 3.15b. Data Set 6: Black Target - Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence. 

(Enlarged scale for Fig. 3.14c) 


The standard deviations of the errors for Data Set 6 are shown in Figs. 3.16a to 3.16c. It is clear 
from these plots that the silver target is the noisiest followed by the black target with the white 
target being the least noisy. Both the silver and black target show a pronounced effect in terms 
of noise as a function of angle of incidence and distance although the stratification in terms of 
angle of incidence is not perfectly clean nor is there any immediately obvious monotonicity in 
terms of magnitude of angle. For distances of 20 m and greater, the noise seems to increase 
almost exponentially for high angles of incidence for the silver. 


42 


Standard Deviation (m) Standard Deviation (m) 


0.30 


0.25 


0.20 


0.15 


0.10 


0.05 


0.00 


□ 


© 

A 


i 4 




□ 


+ 


O 

□ 


X 


DT 


* I 


A 


n 4 


& 

w 


* 2 f 

+ 

n n i 


20 


40 60 80 

Distance (m) 


— i — 

100 


Silver 


♦ 0 s 

■ 10 s 
20 s 
• 30 s 
■ 40 s 
© 50 s 
+ 60 s 
□ 70 s 
A 80 s 
X85 s 
O 90 s 


120 


Figure 3.16a. Data Set 6: Standard Deviation of Error for Silver Target. 



Distance (m) 

Figure 3. 16b. Data Set 6: Standard Deviation of Error for White Target. 


43 


0.30 


c 

a 

■s=i 

> 

0) 

Q 


(C 

T5 

C 

CO 


0.25 


0.20 


0.15 


0.10 


0.05 


0.00 


Black 


Note that no data is available for the 
higher angle of incidences and distances 
due to misses of the target. 


-2r 


-X- 


* 


+ 


3 




w 

♦ 


v 

—l — 

20 


40 60 80 

Distance (m) 


100 


♦ 

0 9 

■ 

10 s 


01 

0 

CVJ 

0 

30 s 

■ 

40 s 

© 

50 s 

+ 

60 s 

□ 

70 s 

A 

80 s 

X 

85 s 

O 

90 9 


120 


Figure 3. 1 6c. Data Set 6: Standard Deviation of Error for Black Target. 


Figures 3.17 and 3.18 combine the data from Figs. 3.15 and 3.16 and show the data for each 
color separately. In these figures, the values in the legend represent the angular rotation of the 
target in degrees. 


44 


Error (m) 



Distance (m) 
a. Silver 



20 40 60 80 

Distance (m) 

b. White 


100 


120 



I 


— 

— 


— 


Black ■ 

O 0 

□ 10 

# 20 

x 30 

O 40 

A 50 

9 60 

■ 70 

♦ 80 

A 85 

? 90 

Not 

for 

inci 

mis 

e that nc 
the h 
dences ar 
ses of the 

data is 
igher a 
d distanc 
target. 

available 
ngle of 
es due to 




£ 

i 

it i 

r 



o 

t * 

t 




* 

* y * * 

i 

r i 

i 





0 20 40 60 80 100 120 


Distance (m) 


c. Black 

Figure 3.17. Data Set 6: Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence. Values in legend 
represent target rotation in degrees. (Error bars = la). 




45 


Error (m) 



0 20 40 60 80 100 120 



Distance (m) 


Distance (m) 


a. Black 


b. White 


Figure 3.18. Data Set 6: Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence: Enlarged scale as 
compared with Figs. 3.17b and c. Values in legend represent target rotation in degrees. 

(Error bars = la). 


3.3.2 Data Sets 5 and 6 


The data for the LDP target (Data Set 5) for three angles of incidence (0°, 45°, 60°) are shown in 
Fig. 3.19a. Other than the observation made in Section 3.1 that high reflectance of the LDP 
target at 0° causes significant error for distances less than 40 m, no clear effect in terms of 
accuracy or precision as a function of angle of incidence, can be observed for the LDP target. 
The LDP target at 45° exhibits somewhat degraded accuracy for the mid-distances, 80 m to 
110 m. 

Also, shown in Fig. 3.19b for comparison purposes are the data for the silver target (Data Set 6). 
The silver target, which is less reflective than the LDP target, exhibits greater error than the LDP 
target for higher angles of incidences. This appears to contradict the observation made earlier 
that errors for more reflective targets arise from the presence of objects around the target. A 
possible explanation for this apparent contradiction may be because the LDP material consists of 
many small individual highly reflective prisms (Fig. 2.2 b). The material is manufactured in this 
manner (maximum visibility) so that light is reflected back to an observer even if the target is 
rotated away from the observer. 


46 


Error (m) 


1.5 - 


0.5 


1 1 1 1 

— 

— 















■ 

b. a 

p . 

* 

L nsr 

1 8 

t - 4 

L 

- i a • - O it* * * 

. * ■ <D 

<5 9 

i 

P ~ 









O 

i 


O o 
■ 45 

o 60 


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 


Distance (m) 
a. LDP Target 


E, 

o 

i— 

LU 



O 0 
e 40 

° 60 


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 


Distance (m) 
b. Silver Target 


Figure 3.19. Error vs. Distance and Angle of Incidence for LDP Targets (Data Set 5) and Silver 
Target (Data Set 6). Values in legend represent target rotation in degrees. (Error bars = la). 


Summary of findings for angle of incidence: As expected, the accuracy and precision decrease 
as the angle of incidence increases, with the silver target (most reflective) yielding the greatest 
errors and being the least precise. There is no clear pattern for the effect of reflectance on 
precision. However, reflectance is seen to have an effect on the number of misses of a target 
with a lower reflectance target sustaining more misses at higher angles of incidence and at larger 
distances. 


3.4 Beam Divergence 

A useful byproduct of the angle of incidence experiment (Data Set 6) is the data of the laser 
beam size as a function of distance from the target. This information can be used to determine 
the beam spread function" and the divergence of the laser beam. A laser producing a smaller 
output beam diameter with minimum divergence will yield more accurate distance measurements 
as the reported distance is averaged over the illuminated area. 

The laser in the scanner is comprised of three laser diodes. The beam size as it exits the LADAR 
is 42 mm (high) x 25 mm (wide) as stated by the manufacturer. The results of the experiment 
show that the projections of the laser are one bright rectangular region for distances less than 


■ The beam spread function is necessary for the deconvolution of the LADAR intensity image which allows for the 
identification of the image or “reading” of the bar codes. This topic is the subject of another NIST internal report 
(in preparation). 


47 


10 m. For distances greater than 10 m, three bright vertical bands with dark regions in between 
are visible. 

The visual procedure to determine beam sizes is as follows (recall that the outlines of the laser 
beam were made by at least two observers using different color markers): 

1 . Make two copies of original outlines (or as many copies as there are observers). 

2. Draw first line to best fit Observer’s 1 markings - Line 1 (Fig. 3.20). Note: Line 1 

was arbitrarily chosen - Lines 2, 3, or 4 could easily have been chosen as the first line 
to be drawn. 

3. Draw a second line 90° to Line 1 that best fit markings - Line 2. 

4. Draw a third line 90° to Line 2 that best fit markings - Line 3. 

5. Draw a fourth line 90° to Line 3 that best fit markings - Line 4. 

6. Draw lines 5-8 perpendicular to Line 2 or Line 4. 

7. Measure lengths of lines. 

8. Repeat Steps 2 to 7 for Observer 2’s outlines. 


Line 1 



Line 3 


Line 2 


(a) Observer 1 (Drawing has been reduced and is not shown to scale). 


Figure 3.20. Outline of Laser Beam at 70 m. 


48 



(b) Observer 2 (Drawing has been reduced and is not shown to scale). 
Continue Figure 3.20. Outline of Laser Beam at 70 m. 


The beam dimensions as obtained from the procedure described above are given in Table 3.6. 

Table 3.6. Data Set 6: Laser Beam Size. 


Distance 

V 

W 1 ' 


b* 

c * 

d* 

e* 

(m) 

(ram) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

2 § 

17 

41 

na** 

na 

na 

na 

na 

2 s 

15 

45.5 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

2 s 

15 

47 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

2 § 

17 

40 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

2* 

14 

41 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 


19 

42 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

5 * 

25 

46 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

? 

18 

36 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

5 § 

19 

41 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

~w~ 

31.5 

49 

15 

2 

10.5 

1.5 

20 

10 

27 

51 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

10 

28 

48 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

10 

22 

46 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

10 

29 

58 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

10 

24 

53 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

10 

3! 

62 

na 

na 

na 

na 

na 

20* 

60 

68 

19.5 

8 

16 

10 

14 

20 

53.5 

68 

9.5 

16.5 

14 

14 

14 

20 

55 

56 

9 

15 

14 

11 

8 

30 

86 

79 

7 

21.5 

11 

29 

10 

30 

79 

87 

9.5 

24.5 

15 

34.5 

3.5 

30* 

74.5 

86 

16 

18 

16.5 

23.5 

12 

39.5* 

117.5 

116 

11.5 

37.5 

14.5 

37 

15.5 


49 


Distance 

L T 

W T 

a T 

b T 

c' 

d 1 

e f 

(™) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

(mm) 

39.5* 

96 

111.5 

14 

35.5 

13 

29 

20 

40 

115 

117 

17 

26 

20.5 

31 

22 

40 

101 

105 

13 

24 

24 

30 

14 

50 

136 

159 

39 

32.5 

14 

54 

19 

50 

127 

146.5 

12.5 

47 

22 

43.5 

22 

60 

158 

166.5 

21 

48 

23 

57 

17 

60 

161 

166 

24.5 

53 

18 

47 

22.5 

70 

180 

194 

20 

68 

25.5 

62.5 

18 

70 

166 

187 

16 

71 

18 

66 

16 

80 

176 

183 

14 

78 

18 

59 

14.5 

80 

166 

207 

20.5 

53.5 

27 

84 

22.5 

80 

172 

213 

19.5 

97 

17 

57.5 

22.5 

90 

186 

260 

26 

115.5 

25 

72 

21 

90 § 

254 

248 

22.5 

73 

54 

61 

38 

90 § 

230 

230 

26.5 

65 

44.5 

64.5 

29.5 

100 

182.5 

274 

25 

101 

34 

84 

30 

100 5 

234 

266 

17 

120 

14.5 

101 

12.5 

O 

O 

(03 

246.5 

263.5 

15 

99.5 

14 

122 

14 

-Cr 

1 © 

© 

284 

288.5 

21 

107.5 

24.5 

110.5 

25 


Notes: 


1 Description of Variables 


L 

v 



e 

-► 


* A few initial tests were made on October 1 1, 2001 to determine if the projection of the laser beam 
could indeed be seen and “measured” using an IR viewer. 

§ Additional runs were made on Feb. 26 and 27, 2002 to determine the beam size at distances where 
there were no data or where there was only one data point available. 
tT na = not applicable 


The lengths and widths of the beam projection are plotted as a function of the distance in Fig. 
3.21. Despite the highly subjective manner in which the beam dimensions were obtained, a clear 
trend for the beam length and width appears visible in Fig. 3.21. Quadratic model least squares 
regression parameters for the width and length of the beam are: 


50 


width — 0.0071x 2 + 1.6637x + 34.815 R 2 = 0.9874 

length = -0.0025x 2 + 2.528x + 6.9588 R 2 = 0.9606 

for 5 < x <100 

where 

x is the distance in meters 
and beam width, length are in millimeters 



Figure 3.21. Data Set 6: Regression Fits for Laser Beam Length and Width. 


Based on the measured beam dimensions, divergences of the beam in the width (horizontal) and 
length (vertical) directions were calculated. Since there were no measurements of the beam size 
as it exits the instrument, the beam size at 2 m was taken as the reference or initial beam size for 
calculating the divergence. The divergence was calculated using the formulas (tan y ~ y for y « 
1 ): 


51 


1000 


y vertical (*) 


' L{x) - 1 ( 2 ) 

v (D(x)-D(2))M000 y 


1000 


" L{x)~ 15.55 ^ 

j£>(x)-2)* 1000, 


ft, 


orizontal 


(x) 


' W(x ) - W(2) ' 
k (D(x)-D( 2))* 1000 y 


1000 


" IT(x) - 43 ^ 

jD(x)-2)*1000), 


1000 


where 

7 vertical ( x ) - y horizontal ( x ) = divergence at distance x in milliradians 

L(x) = Average length, in millimeters, of beam at distance x 
W(x) = Average width, in millimeters, of beam at distance x 
D(x) = Distance in meters 


The beam divergences as a function of distance are shown in Fig. 3.22. 


“O 

(Z 

u. 

E, 

0) 

u 

c 

cn 

w 

0) 

> 

Q 



Length Divergence 
• Width Divergence 


Figure 3.22. Beam Divergence. 


The average vertical beam divergence is 2.14 mrad (s = 0.39 mrad) and the average horizontal 
beam divergence, excluding the outlier (negative divergence) is 1.86 mrad (s = 0.44 mrad). The 
average beam divergence, average of horizontal and vertical divergences, is 2.01 mrad (s = 
0.43 mrad) - compared with the manufacturer’s specified divergence of 3 mrad. The lower 
experimental value could be a result of the inability of the unaided human eye to detect the faint 
edges of the laser beam projection. 


52 


Plots of the bandwidths of the bright and dark bands are shown in Figs. 3.23 and 3.24. In Fig. 
3.23, the bandwidths for the each individual band are plotted and trends are clearly visible for 
both the bright and dark bands. Linear regression parameters for individual bandwidths are 
given in Table 3.7. 


Table 3.7. Coefficients for Linear Regression for Individual Bandwidths. 


Description 

Bandwidth 

(mm) 

Slope (M) + 

Intercept (B) 

R 2i 

Bright Bands 





Left 


0.1123 

11.198 

0.2283 

Middle 

c 5 

0.1842 

9.8815 

0.2938 

Right 

e § 

0.1315 

10.643 

0.2864 

Dark Bands 

Left 

b^ 

1.1426 

-13.251 

0.8954 

Right 

d § 

0.9815 

-6.0425 

0.8702 

Notes: 

Bandwidth = Mx + B where x = distance in meters; 5 < x < 100 

1 Correlation coefficient squared 

§ Corresponds to bands shown in Notes section of Table 3.6. 




Distance (m) 


Left Bright Band 
® Left Dark Band 
Middle Bright Band 
a Right Dark Band 
♦ Right Bright Band 
Linear (Left Bright Band) 

— Linear (Left Dark Band) 
Linear (Middle Bright Band) 

— Linear (Right Dark Band) 

— Linear (Right Bright Band) 


Figure 3.23. Individual Band Widths vs Distance. 


53 


Fig. 3.24 is a plot of the same data as shown in Fig. 3.23. With the data for the three bright 
bands combined and plotted as ‘bright band’ and the data for the two dark bands combined and 
plotted as ‘dark band’. The regression parameters for the bright and dark bandwidth fits are: 

Dark bandwidth = 1 .062* - 9.6468 R 2 = 0.8784 

Bright bandwidth = 0. 143x + 10.574 R 2 = 0.2578 

where 

x = distance in meters; 10 < x < 100 
bandwidth in millimeters 



Figure 3.24. Combined Bright and Dark Band Widths vs. Distance. 

Judging by the coefficients of determination for the two fits, the bright band shows a poorer fit 
than the dark band. 


3.5 Correlation 

The data obtained directly by the instrument are in the form of azimuth angle (?), elevation angle 
(f), distance (R). However, the only measured value is R with the azimuth and elevation angles 
being obtained from line encoders. Therefore, when polar coordinates are converted to Cartesian 


54 


coordinates by the instrument, nominal values (encoder values) of the azimuth and elevation 
angles are used. Thus, it is not possible to meaningfully evaluate cross-correlations [corr ( R , 0), 
corr (R, (p )] and only the spatial correlation, corr ( R , R), can be investigated (Section 3.5.2). 


3.5.1 Temporal Autocorrelation - Data Set 8 

Assuming the 1 00 pseudo-replicated § points taken at one location on the target represent a norm 
for replication through time for a measurement of the same (geographic) location under fixed 
operating conditions, it is possible to assess the (temporal) autocorrelation of the instrument by 
lagging each location’s block of 100 points with respect to itself and computing the resulting 
autocorrelation function (ACF). 


h = 


N-k 

X(x, -*X*/+* -*) 

/= 1 


zfc -*) 2 

t=\ 


Doing this repeatedly across multiple blocks yields plots of the form in Fig. 3.26. In Fig. 3.26, in 
each frame, the X-axis represents LAG between the two versions of the same time sequence 
(LAG units coincide with the basic time sampling units) and the Y-axis represents the computed 
autocorrelation at the lag, i.e., r*. The two sets of horizontal lines in each plot represents 
estimated 95 % (2 o) and 99 % (3 a) confidence bands for the autocorrelations. Plot plots 
outside the ranges of the indicated bounds would represent statistically significant nonzero 
autocorrelation(s) at 5 % and 1 % significance, respectively. 


§ True replication would involve zeroing out, re-setting, and re-measuring after a substantial time interval. 


55 


1 



-05 “ 


-1 - j F 1 1 1 1 1 — ~r ~1 

0 5 10 15 20 25 


LAG 

Figure 3.26. Autocorrelation Plots. 


The plots in Fig. 3.26 display no significant autocorrelation at nontrivial (^ 1) lags. Significant 
low-order autocorrelation (lags 2, 3, 4) would be indicative of a stickiness in the replicated 
points: a tendency for their deviations about their mean to repeat/duplicate themselves at points 
close in time. Significant high-order autocorrelative structure would be indicative of a quasi- 
periodicity in the time sequence: a tendency for the sequence to duplicate, or to almost 
duplicate, itself at some fixed lag. 

Autocorrelation causes a bias in the low, or optimistic, direction in variance estimates based on 
the replicated data. In fact, it is intuitive that the estimates will be biased low because of the 
tendency of autocorrelated points to self-adhere. Put in simplest terms, autocorrelation induces 
error in variance (and associated standard deviation) estimates. While the problem is correctable 
if suspected and detected , it is obviously preferable that the problem not occur at all. That this 
is the case here is reassuring. 


An unbiased estimate of the variance can be obtained as the ordinate at zero frequency of the power spectrum 


56 


3.5.2 Spatial Autocorrelation - Data Set 7 


Data Set 7 is organized as 10 replicates per location at 25 vertically arranged locations along a 
vertical strip for 3 strips. The presence of the sequence of 10 repetitions at multiple 
contiguous/adjacent locations enables us to estimate spatial autocorrelation between adjacent, or 
closely spaced locations along the strip. The key variable in this experiment is the vertical 
distance between the points. The specified incremental angles between points are 0.045°, 0.090°, 
and 0.180° which translates to distances of 7.9 mm, 15.7 mm, and 31.4 mm for a target located 
10 m from the scanner. 

The correlations (lag = 1) for strips 1, 2 and 3 and vertical incremental angles of 0.045°, 0.090°, 
and 0.180° are given in Tables 3.8, 3.9, and 3.10, respectively. 


Table 3.8. Data Set 7: Spatial Correlation For 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

R-R 

Std. Error n 

R-R 

Std. Error n 

R-R 

Std. Error n 

-0.55204 

0.25297 

0.74432 

0.19857 

-0.04289 

0.34049 

0.07578 

0.38314 

-0.17656 

0.36967 

-0.03537 

0.42698 

0.05171 

0.39157 

0.13766 

0.43325 

0.19172 

0.21671 

0.27004 

0.40448 

-0.28101 

0.42454 

-0.44123 

0.26475 

-0.58448 

0.1824 

-0.57393 

0.34741 

-0.4847 

0.29094 

-0.37383 

0.23536 

0.35231 

0.20785 

-0.45583 

0.23539 

0.62769 

0.20726 

0.52773 

0.15336 

-0.19037 

0.33801 

0.50778 

0.29949 

-0.14254 

0.34996 

-0.01197 

0.30406 

-0.26985 

0.40095 

-0.46646 

0.32139 

0.01148 

0.38466 

-0.13945 

0.2607 

-0.16489 

0.35893 

-0.42333 

0.31418 

0.87244 

0.09083 

-0.77195 

. ■ 

0.17778 

0.43474 

0.2817 

0.08739 

0.32706 

0.26443 

0.35237 

0.36859 

0.26577 

-0.57979 

0.21134 

-0.14849 

0.33198 

-0.2936 

0.28408 

0.91375 

0.02805 

0.78714 

0.20364 

-0.32593 

0.27716 

0.09417 

0.30343 

1.00000 

0.00006 

0.53441 

0.19458 

0.82015 

0.13774 

1 .00000 

0.00004 

0.1823 

0.46205 

-0.19088 

0.32665 

-0.31894 

0.26856 

-0.45655 

0.23226 

-0.38197 

0.20382 

0.39947 

0.21379 

-0.54255 

0.25972 

0.11923 

0.34496 

0.24458 

0.36047 

0.39676 

0.29478 

-0.35167 

0.27788 

-0.5899 

0.30531 

-0.10517 

0.26977 

-0.43707 

0.23681 

-0.43439 

0.35767 

-0.06267 

0.30774 

0.82979 

0.11297 

0.04884 

0.28561 

-0.09866 

0.32113 

-0.26641 

0.37783 

-0.12623 

0.27751 

-0.28201 

0.23208 

-0.33663 

0.32035 

0.35376 

0.27308 

-0.0389 

0.4825 

Notes: Shaded cells are instances of significant correlation. 


tt Standard errors for the correlations were estimated by bootstrapping [Efron and Tibshirani, 1993] . 


57 


Table 3.9. Data Set 7: Spatial Correlation for 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

R-R 

Std. Error 

R-R 

Std. Error 

R-R 

Std. Error 

0.04023 

0.31993 

-0.37415 

0.20074 

-0.3325 

0.33687 

-0.05737 

0.38259 

0.04083 

0.32854 

0.27579 

0.41989 

-0.44075 

0.28008 

-0.40951 

0.31755 

0.6197 

0.18361 . 

-0.00014 

0.32705 

0.06147 

0.36001 

0.15189 

0.29353 

0.77054 

0.10097 

0.04636 

0.44261 

0.50289 

0.31596 

-0.22626 

0.25344 

-0.37949 

0.30592 

0.66239 

0.21289 

-0.43177 

0.27858 

-0.11252 

0.33779 

-0.14162 

0.29372 

0.32753 

0.30081 

0.10783 

0.39081 

0.60301 

0.28728 

0.62817 

0.15617 

0.44215 

0.17788 

0.58331 

0.31369 

0.45546 

0.33414 

-0.14143 

0.35644 

0.38173 

0.2345 

0.09507 

0.36422 

-0.58178 

0.19458 

0.48458 

0.39203 

-0.01288 

0.42003 

0.1496 

0.33689 

-0.15646 

0.28488 

-0.23579 

0.3064 

-0.09338 

0.37834 

-0.22841 

0.26505 

-0.57032 

0.22791 

0.01072 

0.3388 

-0.73704 

0.46548 

-0.28361 

0.37853 

-0.2714 

0.31101 

-0.31044 

0.26085 

-0.07629 

0.36469 

-0.07577 

0.31151 

0.35164 

0.26769 

-0.01351 

0.23284 

0.0863 

0.3234 

0.33585 

0.27064 

0.2583 

0.34492 

0.62126 

0.23531 

0.59442 

0.15488 

-0.56313 

0.25592 

-0.28707 

0.40308 

-0.25577 

0.27133 

0.42167 

0.35682 

-0.37826 

0.20698 

-0.06747 

0.29893 

-0.75035 

0.14136 

-0.75785 

0.1334 

0.21958 

0.32173 

-0.16274 

0.23618 

-0.34097 

0.34117 

-0.36802 

0.33458 

0.06879 

0.24266 

-0.09119 

0.34036 

0.13394 

0.38527 

0.04338 

0.29401 

0.62354 

0.29509 

-0.00936 

0.44477 

Notes: Shaded cells are instances of significant correlation. 


Table 3.10. Data Set 7: Spatial Correlation for 0.180° Incremental Angle. 


Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

R-R 

Std. Error 

R-R 

Std. Error 

R-R 

Std. Error 

-0.02523 

0.39223 

0.3342 

0.34421 

0.44386 

0.33459 

-0.23081 

0.37593 

-0.45636 

0.35246 

0.02245 

0.40943 

0.03178 

0.36891 

0.45053 

0.2358 

0.00256 

0.3951 

0.19884 

0.23042 

0.26613 

0.42503 

-0.30439 

0.36607 

0.04748 

0.36262 

0.42192 

0.26559 

-0.18638 

0.34745 

-0.29251 

0.261 

0.33306 

0.27872 

-0.1293 

0.32023 

-0.74941 

0.27052 

-0.36537 

0.2864 

-0.11169 

0.35782 

0.18529 

0.40528 

-0.33562 

0.29819 

0.67417 

0.14484 


58 


Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

R-R 

Std. Error 

R-R 

Std. Error 

R-R 

Std. Error 

0.42923 

0.4175 

0.14002 

0.42949 

-0.34621 

0.30111 

-0.58264 

0.14779 

0.32185 

0.40692 

-0.17787 

0.36141 

0.21543 

0.33636 

0.16281 

0.35796 

0.47939 

0.24581 

-0.55006 

0.35867 

-0.19229 

0.38524 

0.47337 

0.2233 

-0.10123 

0.31639 

-0.5181 

0.23856 

0.44582 

0.36826 

-0.01678 

0.33585 

0.17932 

0.35488 

-0.40009 

0.35683 

-0.60713 

0.20003 

-0.0475 

0.39304 

0.54936 

0.26534 

0.01777 

0.38883 

0.32296 

0.31779 

0.02965 

0.32261 

0.24499 

0.29048 

0.03808 

0.2709 

-0.31793 

0.25856 

-0.10405 

0.2983 

-0.18809 

0.26094 

0.2797 

0.31558 

-0.1687 

0.47751 

0.37456 

0.18533 

0.02767 

0.29249 

-0.57767 

0.31923 

0.03594 

0.31149 

-0.53119 

0.2245 

-0.2125 

0.35412 

-0.02728 

0.38385 

0.50402 

0.28571 

-0.15705 

0.30546 

-0.49235 

0.25695 

-0.20329 

0.3737 

0.39246 

0.41459 

0.8526 

0.07813 

-0.08847 

0.27742 

-0.40737 

0.46504 

0.12131 

0.41772 

0.21695 

0.23713 

Notes: Shaded cells are instances of significant correlation. 


Examination of the correlation values and associated standard errors** shows that there is 
sporadic, seemingly, random statistically significant correlation between contiguous 
measurements in a vertical strip. The number of incidences of significant spatial correlation 
(shaded cells in Tables 3.8 to 3.10) increases as the incremental angle decreases, i.e., the vertical 
distance between points decreases. Since the findings in this experiment are inconclusive, the 
existence of spatial autocorrelation will require further investigation. If spatial autocorrelation is 
present, simple propagation of error methods, that is, propagation of error that does not take 2 nd 
order, cross-correlation terms into account, may not yield reliable results. 


Double the standard errors and check to see if the interval correlation ± (2 a) crosses zero. If it does, the 
correlation is statistically indistinguishable from zero at 95 % confidence. 


59 


4.0 


CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH NEEDS 


4.1 Summary and Conclusions 

The potential applications of LADARs are numerous and they cross over several sectors of 
industry - construction, large-scale manufacturing, remote sensing, national defense (military). 
As the use of LADARs increases, there is a growing need to characterize the LADARs and to 
develop statistically justifiable uncertainties for the LADAR data and their end products. There 
have been only a handful of such efforts in this area. 

To evaluate surface generation algorithms objectively, the accuracy/precision characteristics of 
the sensor must first be determined. Therefore, in the first phase of a NIST project, calibration 
experiments, varying distance/size/color/reflectivity of targets were conducted. In the second 
phase, evaluations of surface generation algorithms with respect to meshing, registration, data 
editing (filtering, handling outliers, etc.) were performed and are reported in Witzgall and Cheok 
[2001] and in a second report that is in preparation. In the third phase, all such knowledge has to 
be integrated into a credible calculation of statistical uncertainty for reconstructed scenes and 
derived values such as volume. 

As part of the first phase, a series of exploratory experiments to characterize a laser scanner was 
conducted and these efforts are chronicled in this report. These experiments served three 
purposes: 1) assessment of the accuracy and precision of the range measurements, 2) learning 
process for the use of and familiarization with a LADAR, and 3) to address specific needs as 
they arose. The experimental parameters examined included target color, texture, reflectivity, 
angle of incidence, and beam divergence. The effects of target reflectivity and distance on the 
intensity value were examined to assess the possibility of using intensity values to identify 
objects within a scene. 

The initial findings can be summarized as follows: 

1 . Accuracy. 

a. For the instrument calibrated, for the two extreme colors (black and white) and for 
angle of incidences equal to 0°, the measurement errors (Data Set 5) generally fell 
within the ± 5 cm bounds (manufacturer’s upper bounds). 

b. Reduction of the laser output power (filter on laser) significantly decreased 
accuracy of a less reflective target (black) at the upper range of the LADAR. 

2. Color Effect (Reflectivity): 

a. Comparisons of the global regression line statistics show no dramatic color effect. 

b. Less reflective targets (black, dark gray) are less precise at longer distances than 
more reflective targets (white). 

c. Biases are also observed for some of the colors: a pink target is biased low. Dark 
gray and black targets are biased high. 

d. Reduction of the laser output power (filter on laser) significantly decreased 
precision at the upper range of the LADAR regardless of target color. 


60 


3. Angle of incidence: 

a. As expected, the angle of incidence affects the range accuracy. Highly reflective 
targets (silver, shiny) yield the largest measurement errors for this series of 
experiments and are the least precise - for angles of incidence of 50° and greater. 

b. The least reflective target (black) sustains the most misses (no returns) as the 
angle of incidence increases. 

4. LDP material (Highly reflective): 

a. Consistently high (>200) intensities for the entire range of the scanner was 
observed which makes the LDP material a potential candidate for the fabrication 
of bar codes. 

b. Very significant measurement errors are observed for this material for distances 
less than 40 m due to saturation of the detector. 

5. Autocorrelation: 

a. No evidence of significant temporal autocorrelation was observed. 

b. Random significant spatial correlations between contiguous measurements were 
observed and require further investigation. 


These findings are based on a very limited number of experiments and on one type of laser 
scanner. It should be kept in mind that these findings are likely instrument dependent. Further 
experiments are needed to verify fully and expand upon these findings and to refine the 
calibration procedure. 

The initial efforts and findings presented in this report provide a better understanding of what is 
required to calibrate similar sensors in terms of significant parameters affecting range 
measurements, test procedures, and calibration facility requirements. Additional experiments 
with other types of laser scanners would be necessary to develop standard calibration protocols 
appropriate for all or most of the commercially available scanners. 

4.2 Research Needs 

There are currently no facilities or standard test protocols for the calibration or performance 
evaluation of LADARs [Marshall et al. 2001]. As the potential application of LADARs grows, 
there is a need to establish a facility to calibrate and evaluate these types of sensors. It is 
anticipated that such a calibration facility would consist of an indoor and an outdoor facility. 
The indoor facility would allow for calibrations to be conducted in a controlled environment 
(temperature, humidity, pressure) while an outdoor facility would permit the evaluation of the 
scanner performance in a more realistic environment. 

Test protocols and calibrations for the indoor facility would fall under two general categories: 

® hardware calibration 

- distance accuracy and precision 

- pointing accuracy and precision 

- laser beam divergence 


61 


- depth and horizontal resolution - what is the minimum distance between objects 
that is detectable by the sensor 

- minimum object size that is detectable by the sensor 

- stability/degradation of sensor over time 

• performance evaluation using artifacts - i.e., given several standard artifacts, how 
accurately and precisely can the following characteristics be determined: 

- dimensions 

- position/location 

- area/volume 

- geometry/object identity 

In the second category, performance evaluation involves the assessment of the combination of 
hardware and software to produce a desired end product. LADAR data could be used “as is” 
(point cloud), but the full potential of such data lies in the use of the data to create 3D models 
from which positions, dimensions, areas, volumes, etc. can be ascertained. This process involves 
software to register multiple scans and to mesh the point cloud, as well as methods to clean/filter 
and to subsample the data. In general, the calibrations obtained from the first category above 
could be used for propagating instrument error through to the end product and to determine how 
to improve the scanner, whereas the calibrations in the second category would be used to 
measure and explicitly note the performance of the scanner. Metrics to evaluate the scanner 
performance are harder to establish than the metrics to evaluate the hardware accuracy and 
precision. 

For each of the subtopics listed for hardware calibrations and performance evaluation, many 
issues have to be resolved. These issues include determining the optical characteristics of the 
standard targets (color, reflectivity, texture, etc.), shape, size, material, and placement of the 
artifacts, and choice of software package. Some hardware specific issues include developing 
methods to ensure that the target is perpendicular to the laser and procedures for dealing with 
instruments that are not setup for single point acquisition. 

The outdoor facility would consist of designated areas that are open, partially wooded, and 
wooded. Permanent benchmarks would be located throughout the designated areas for 
accurately locating the sensor. In addition to allowing for the evaluation of the scanner under 
more realistic conditions, the outdoor facility would also allow for the evaluation of the sensor’s 
ability to map terrain in different seasons - full foliage (summer), partial foliage (spring and 
fall), and no foliage (winter), and in different environmental conditions - sunny, cloudy, dusty, 
hot, cold. Artifacts could also be used in the outdoor facility. 

The successful establishment of a LADAR calibration and the development of test protocols 
would require the participation, cooperation, and acceptance by the LADAR manufacturers and 
end users. This collaborative effort should start at the initial planning phases and continue 
throughout the whole process. The standardization of the test protocols would also require the 
inclusion of standards writing organizations such as American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI) and the American Society of Non-Destructive Testing. 


62 


REFERENCES 


Collier, R. [1998], “Characterization of a Range Scanning System Utilizing a Point Laser 
Rangefinder,” MS Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, August, 74 pp. 

Efron, B. and Tibshirani, R. J. [1993], An Introduction to the Bootstrap , Chapman and Hall, 
New York. 

El-Hakim, S. F., Beraldin, J. A., and Blais, F. [1995], “A Comparative Evaluation of the 
Performance of Passive and Active 3-D Vision Systems,” Proc. St. Petersburg Conference 
on Digital Photogrammetry, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 25-30, 1995. NRC 39160. 

Kweon, I. S., Hoffman, R. and Krotkov [1991], “Experimental Characterization of the 
Perceptron Laser Rangefinder,” CMU-RI-TR-91-1, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie 
Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, January, 44 pp. 

Marshall, S. J., and Gilby, J. H. [2001], “New Opportunities in Non-Contact 3D 
Measurement,” Proc. National Measurement Conf, 2001, Harrogate, UK. 

Marshall, S. J., Whiteford, D. N., and Rixon, R. C. [2001], “Assessing the Performance of 3D 
Whole Body Imaging Systems,” Proc. 6th Numerisation 3D/Scanning 2001 Congress , 
Paris, France. 

Sachs, L. (1982), Applied Statistics: A Handbook of Techniques, New York , Springer- Verlag, p. 
442. 

Taylor, J. R. [1997], An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical 
Measurements, 2 nd ed.. University Science Books, Sausalito, CA. 

Witzgall, C. and Cheok, G. S. [2001], “Registering 3D Point Clouds: An Experimental 
Evaluation,” NISTIR 6743, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 
MD, May, 41 pp. 


63 


I 

I 


APPENDIX A - Relative Distance 


Table A. 1 Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab. Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

Test Dates: July 14-15, 1999 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., not 

Interfero. 

Wht., not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., shiny 

(mm) 
tall post 

shiny 

(m) 

Dist. (mm) 
short post 

(m) 

(mm) 
tall post 

(m) 

0.00 

4.315 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.588 

0.00 

4.335 

0.00 

4.508 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.395 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.315 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.548 

0.00 

4.315 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.235 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.628 

0.00 

4.295 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.588 

0.00 

4.375 

0.00 

4.408 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.415 

0.00 

4.408 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.375 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.370 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.568 

0.00 

4.430 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.410 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.390 

0.00 

4.428 

0.00 

4.628 

0.00 

4.450 

0.00 

4.408 

0.00 

4.588 

0.00 

4.310 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.588 

0.00 

4.370 

0.00 

4.548 

0.00 

4.628 

0.00 

4.410 

0.00 

4.548 

0.00 

4.588 

0.00 

4.410 

0.00 

4.408 

0.00 

4.548 

0.00 

4.390 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.628 

0.00 

4.370 

0.00 

4.508 

0.00 

4.568 

0.00 

4.330 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.370 

0.00 

4.488 

0.00 

4.608 

0.00 

4.390 

0.00 

4.428 

0.00 

4.588 

0.00 

4.430 

0.00 

4.428 

0.00 

4.608 

2047.17 

6.312 

2001.82 

6.510 

2000.02 

6.630 

2047.17 

6.427 

2001.82 

6.510 

2000.02 

6.59 

2047.17 

6.347 

2001.82 

6.330 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.407 

2001.82 

6.490 

2000.02 

6.59 

2047.17 

6.407 

2001.82 

6.450 

2000.02 

6.57 

2047.17 

6.367 

2001.82 

6.450 

2000.02 

6.61 

2047.17 

6.367 

2001.82 

6.390 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.387 

2001.82 

6.410 

2000.02 

6.61 

2047.17 

6.507 

2001.82 

6.550 

2000.02 

6.61 

2047.17 

6.387 

2001.82 

6.430 

2000.02 

6.55 

2047.17 

6.387 

2001.82 

6.450 

2000.02 

6.57 

2047.17 

6.407 

2001.82 

6.450 

2000.02 

6.61 

2047.17 

6.503 

2001.82 

6.410 

2000.02 

6.59 

2047.17 

6.307 

2001.82 

6.570 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.447 

2001.82 

6.530 

2000.02 

6.59 

2047.17 

6.427 

2001.82 

6.470 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.263 

2001.82 

6.490 

2000.02 

6.61 

2047.17 

6.463 

2001.82 

6.410 

2000.02 

6.59 

2047.17 

6.423 

2001.82 

6.550 

2000.02 

6.65 

2047.17 

6.403 

2001.82 

6.490 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.363 

2001.82 

6.570 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.363 

2001.82 

6.470 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.483 

2001.82 

6.510 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.383 

2001.82 

6.410 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.423 

2001.82 

6.550 

2000.02 

6.63 

2047.17 

6.423 

4000.22 

8.573 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.266 

4000.22 

8.453 

4000.21 

8.573 

4005.47 

8.226 

4000.22 

8.453 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.266 

4000.22 

8.453 

4000.21 

8.573 

4005.47 

8.246 

4000.22 

8.373 

4000.21 

8.593 


65 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

Test Dates: July 14-15, 1999 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., not 

Interfero. 

Wht., not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., shiny 

(mm) 
tall post 

shiny 

(m) 

Dist. (mm) 
short post 

(m) 

(mm) 
tall post 

(m) 

4005.47 

8.346 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.326 

4000.22 

8.453 

4000.21 

8.633 

4005.47 

8.281 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.613 

4005.47 

8.301 

4000.22 

8.633 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.341 

4000.22 

8.593 

4000.21 

8.653 

4005.47 

8.401 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.341 

4000.22 

8.433 

4000.21 

8.613 

4005.47 

8.301 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.613 

4005.47 

8.321 

4000.22 

8.433 

4000.21 

8.573 

4005.47 

8.381 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.553 

4005.47 

8.261 

4000.22 

8.453 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.341 

4000.22 

8.453 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.381 

4000.22 

8.473 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.341 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.593 

4005.47 

8.341 

4000.22 

8.353 

4000.21 

8.613 

4005.47 

8.341 

4000.22 

8.373 

4000.21 

8.613 

4005.47 

8.221 

4000.22 

8.573 

4000.21 

8.533 

4005.47 

8.361 

4000.22 

8.533 

4000.21 

8.553 

4005.47 

8.321 

4000.22 

8.613 

4000.21 

8.613 

4005.47 

8.321 

4000.22 

8.493 

4000.21 

8.653 

4005.47 

8.301 

6002.26 

10.496 

6000.07 

10.616 

4005.47 

8.421 

6002.26 

10.536 

6000.07 

10.576 

6005.04 

10.304 

6002.26 

10.636 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.284 

6002.26 

10.636 

6000.07 

10.596 

6005.04 

10.424 

6002.26 

10.536 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.224 

6002.26 

10.676 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.264 

6002.26 

10.596 

6000.07 

10.576 

6005.04 

10.324 

6002.26 

10.556 

6000.07 

10.576 

6005.04 

10.304 

6002.26 

10.616 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.324 

6002.26 

10.436 

6000.07 

10.636 

6005.04 

10.364 

6002.26 

10.536 

6000.07 

10.596 

6005.04 

10.304 

6002.26 

10.476 

6000.07 

10.576 

6005.04 

10.384 

6002.26 

10.456 

6000.07 

10.596 

6005.04 

10.284 

6002.26 

10.456 

6000.07 

10.576 

6005.04 

10.279 

6002.26 

10.476 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.324 

6002.26 

10.476 

6000.07 

10.636 

6005.04 

10.359 

6002.26 

10.556 

6000.07 

10.576 

6005.04 

10.379 

6002.26 

10.476 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.299 

6002.26 

10.436 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.359 

6002.26 

10.596 

6000.07 

10.536 

6005.04 

10.359 

6002.26 

10.536 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.404 

6002.26 

10.516 

6000.07 

10.636 

6005.04 

10.359 

6002.26 

10.496 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.399 

6002.26 

10.576 

6000.07 

10.616 

6005.04 

10.319 

6002.26 

10.456 

6000.07 

10.596 

6005.04 

10.239 

8001.15 

12.580 

8001.04 

12.620 

6005.04 

10.319 

8001.15 

12.459 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.402 

8001.15 

12.479 

8001.04 

12.56 

8009.23 

12.402 

8001.15 

12.439 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.382 

8001.15 

12.500 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.282 

8001.15 

12.439 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.322 

8001.15 

12.580 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.362 

8001.15 

12.620 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.402 

8001.15 

12.540 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.262 

8001.15 

12.479 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.302 

8001.15 

12.559 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.302 

8001.15 

12.500 

8001.04 

12.54 

8009.23 

12.422 

8001.15 

12.479 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.282 

8001.15 

12.540 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.282 

8001.15 

12.520 

8001.04 

12.6 


66 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab. Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

Test Dates: July 14-15, 1999 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., not 

Interfero. 

Wht., not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., shiny 

(mm) 
tall post 

shiny 

(m) 

Dist. (mm) 
short post 

(m) 

(mm) 
tall post 

(m) 

8009.23 

12.262 

8001.15 

12.540 

8001.04 

12.56 

8009.23 

12.322 

8001.15 

12.500 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.342 

8001.15 

12.540 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.362 

8001.15 

12.479 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.362 

8001.15 

12.540 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.322 

8001.15 

12.540 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.342 

8001.15 

12.439 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.362 

8001.15 

12.620 

8001.04 

12.58 

8009.23 

12.422 

8001.15 

12.560 

8001.04 

12.6 

8009.23 

12.402 

8001.15 

12.379 

8001.04 

12.62 

8009.23 

12.302 

10000.28 

14.584 

10000.81 

14.564 

8009.23 

12.402 

10000.28 

14.524 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.346 

10000.28 

14.483 

10000.81 

14.564 

10021.08 

14.452 

10000.28 

14.584 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.312 

10000.28 

14.584 

10000.81 

14.544 

10021.08 

14.392 

10000.28 

14.564 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.392 

10000.28 

14.504 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.337 

10000.28 

14.564 

10000.81 

14.564 

10021.08 

14.352 

10000.28 

14.504 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.392 

10000.28 

14.483 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.417 

10000.28 

14.524 

10000.81 

14.564 

10021.08 

14.332 

10000.28 

14.584 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.352 

10000.28 

14.544 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.252 

10000.28 

14.483 

10000.81 

14.564 

10021.08 

14.352 

10000.28 

14.564 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.372 

10000.28 

14.604 

10000.81 

14.644 

10021.08 

14.432 

10000.28 

14.624 

10000.81 

14.624 

10021.08 

14.332 

10000.28 

14.524 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.332 

10000.28 

14.504 

10000.81 

14.564 

10021.08 

14.452 

10000.28 

14.524 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.372 

10000.28 

14.564 

10000.81 

14.624 

10021.08 

14.372 

10000.28 

14.544 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.332 

10000.28 

14.504 

10000.81 

14.604 

10021.08 

14.352 

10000.28 

14.604 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.452 

10000.28 

14.584 

10000.81 

14.584 

10021.08 

14.392 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.605 

10021.08 

14.312 

14997.95 

19.445 

15006.54 

19.605 

15026.58 

19.334 

14997.95 

19.485 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.334 

14997.95 

19.445 

15006.54 

19.565 

15026.58 

19.314 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.374 

14997.95 

19.525 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.314 

14997.95 

19.405 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.394 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.605 

15026.58 

19.334 

14997.95 

19.454 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.274 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.374 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.565 

15026.58 

19.374 

14997.95 

19.445 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.374 

14997.95 

19.485 

15006.54 

19.605 

15026.58 

19.354 

14997.95 

19.445 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.334 

14997.95 

19.485 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.394 

14997.95 

19.485 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.294 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.605 

15026.58 

19.334 

14997.95 

19.485 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.334 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.354 

14997.95 

19.465 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.294 

14997.95 

19.405 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.354 

14997.95 

19.485 

15006.54 

19.565 

15026.58 

19.414 

14997.95 

19.425 

15006.54 

19.585 

15026.58 

19.294 

14997.95 

19.405 

15006.54 

19.545 

15026.58 

19.294 

14997.95 

19.445 

15006.54 

19.585 


67 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

Test Dates: July 14-15, 1999 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., not 

Interfero. 

Wht., not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., shiny 

(mm) 
tall post 

shiny 

(m) 

Dist. (mm) 
short post 

( m ) 

(mm) 
tall post 

( m ) 

15026.58 

19.394 

20010.64 

24.425 

20136.28 

24.725 

15026.58 

19.274 

20010.64 

24.505 

20136.28 

24.745 

20015.67 

24.274 

20010.64 

24.505 

20136.28 

24.685 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.565 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.27 

20010.64 

24.505 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.29 

20010.64 

24.485 

20136.28 

24.685 

20015.67 

24.25 

20010.64 

24.555 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.35 

20010.64 

24.485 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.29 

20010.64 

24.445 

20136.28 

24.765 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.445 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.33 

20010.64 

24.405 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.445 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.33 

20010.64 

24.525 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.29 

20010.64 

24.445 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.425 

20136.28 

24.685 

20015.67 

24.33 

20010.64 

24.465 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.27 

20010.64 

24.505 

20136.28 

24.765 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.525 

20136.28 

24.665 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.485 

20136.28 

24.685 

20015.67 

24.27 

20010.64 

24.545 

20136.28 

24.685 

20015.67 

24.33 

20010.64 

24.505 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.29 

20010.64 

24.485 

20136.28 

24.685 

20015.67 

24.33 

20010.64 

24.485 

20136.28 

24.705 

20015.67 

24.37 

20010.64 

24.565 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.31 

20010.64 

24.545 

20136.28 

24.725 

20015.67 

24.29 

30007.36 

34.445 

30806.36 

35.385 

20015.67 

24.25 

30007.36 

34.505 

30806.36 

35.325 

29936.1 

34.250 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.545 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.21 

30007.36 

34.545 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.21 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.325 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.465 

29936.1 

34.19 

30007.36 

34.485 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.505 

30806.36 

35.345 

29936.1 

34.21 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.27 

30007.36 

34.505 

30806.36 

35.325 

29936.1 

34.19 

30007.36 

34.485 

30806.36 

35.425 

29936.1 

34.17 

30007.36 

34.485 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.525 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.21 

30007.36 

34.505 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.21 

30007.36 

34.485 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.345 

29936.1 

34.21 

30007.36 

34.485 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.19 

30007.36 

34.465 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.505 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.27 

30007.36 

34.385 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.19 

30007.36 

34.325 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.505 

30806.36 

35.385 

29936.1 

34.23 

30007.36 

34.485 

30806.36 

35.365 

29936.1 

34.23 

0.00 

4.468 

39913.22 

44.425 

29936.1 

34.25 

0.00 

4.508 

39913.22 

44.425 

39998.52 

44.870 

0.00 

4.528 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.89 

0.00 

4.508 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.89 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.83 

0.00 

4.548 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.87 

0.00 

4.468 

39913.22 

44.425 

39998.52 

44.805 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.865 

0.00 

4.468 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.85 

0.00 

4.388 

39913.22 

44.465 


68 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

No Filter 

Test Dates: July 14-15, 1999 


Interfero. Dist. 
(mm) 
tall post 

Wlit, not 
shiny 
(m) 

Interfero. 
Dist. (mm) 
short post 

Wlit, not shiny 
(m) 

Interfero. Dist. 
(mm) 
tall post 

Wht, shiny 
(m) 

39998.52 

44.87 

0.00 

4.428 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.87 

0.00 

4.528 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.81 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.425 

39998.52 

44.83 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.81 

0.00 

4.468 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.89 

0.00 

4.448 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.85 

0.00 

4.448 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.85 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.85 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.91 

0.00 

4.488 

39913.22 

44.405 

39998.52 

44.89 

0.00 

4.388 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.83 

0.00 

4.548 

39913.22 

44.465 

39998.52 

44.85 

0.00 

4.508 

39913.22 

44.425 

39998.52 

44.83 

0.00 

4.568 

39913.22 

44.425 

39998.52 

44.83 

0.00 

4.528 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.87 

39995.68 

44.465 

39913.22 

44.445 

39998.52 

44.85 

39995.68 

44.545 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.505 

39995.68 

44.465 

49895.7 

54.485 

49954.58 

54.525 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.485 

49954.58 

54.565 

39995.68 

44.485 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.605 

39995.68 

44.465 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.485 

39995.68 

44.465 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.605 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.565 

39995.68 

44.525 

49895.7 

54.485 

49954.58 

54.525 

39995.68 

44.465 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.465 

39995.68 

44.425 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.505 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.565 

39995.68 

44.445 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.585 

39995.68 

44.485 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.525 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.545 

39995.68 

44.525 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.545 

39995.68 

44.585 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.545 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.505 

39995.68 

44.585 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.565 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.525 

39995.68 

44.565 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.465 

39995.68 

44.505 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.565 

39995.68 

44.565 

49895.7 

54.445 

49954.58 

54.545 

39995.68 

44.585 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.625 

39995.68 

44.565 

49895.7 

54.465 

49954.58 

54.545 

49951.73 

54.365 

49895.7 

54.485 

49954.58 

54.505 

49951.73 

54.405 

49895.7 

54.465 



49951.73 

54.465 





49951.73 

54.445 





49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.465 





49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.445 





49951.73 

54.445 





49951.73 

54.385 





49951.73 

54.365 





49951.73 

54.445 





49951.73 

54.405 





49951.73 

54.405 





49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.465 





49951.73 

54.405 





49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.445 




69 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

Test Dates: July 14-15, 1999 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., not 

Interfero. 

Wht., not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Wht., shiny 

(mm) 

shiny 

Dist. (mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

tall post 

(m) 

short post 


tall post 




49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.425 





49951.73 

54.465 


• 



49951.73 

54.565 





49951.73 

54.505 




70 


Table A.l Data Setl - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 



File: rel_ 

dist_anal.xls 

Lnterfero. 

Blck, not 

lnterfero. 

Blck, shiny 

lnterfero. 

Dk. Grey, 

lnterfero. 

Pink, not 

Dist. 

shiny 

Dist. 

(m) 

Dist. 

rough 

Dist. 

shiny 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 


(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.468 

0 

4.548 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.488 

0 

4.488 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.488 

0 

4.368 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.548 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.508 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.368 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.448 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.548 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.508 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.568 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.468 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.368 

0 

4.508 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.548 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.348 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.508 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.528 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.368 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.488 

0 

4.388 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.468 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.508 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.408 

0 

4.428 

0 

4.528 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.410 

2001.41 

6.410 

2000.71 

6.530 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.450 

2000.71 

6.470 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.450 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.470 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.370 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.530 

2000.24 

6.390 

2000.57 

6.430 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.530 

2000.24 

6.390 

2000.57 

6.430 

2001.41 

6.470 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.450 

2000.57 

6.410 

2001.41 

6.450 

2000.71 

6.470 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.490 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.370 

2000.57 

6.410 

2001.41 

6.470 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.390 

2000.57 

6.430 

2001.41 

6.410 

2000.71 

6.530 

2000.24 

6.390 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.470 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.530 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.430 

2001.41 

6.490 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.430 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.470 

2000.71 

6.530 

2000.24 

6.390 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.490 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.510 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.450 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.390 

2000.57 

6.410 

2001.41 

6.390 

2000.71 

6.550 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.450 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.490 

2000.24 

6.410 

2000.57 

6.430 

2001.41 

6.430 

2000.71 

6.550 

2000.24 

6.430 

2000.57 

6.470 

2001.41 

6.470 

2000.71 

6.510 

4009.75 

8.473 

3998.67 

8.373 

3998.68 

8.473 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.473 

4000.15 

8.453 

4009.75 

8.413 

3998.67 

8.413 

3998.68 

8.513 

4000.15 

8.393 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.413 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.413 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.393 

3998.68 

8.513 

4000.15 

8.453 

4009.75 

8.493 

3998.67 

8.393 

3998.68 

8.513 

4000.15 

8.473 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.413 

3998.68 

8.473 

4000.15 

8.473 


71 


Table A.l Data Setl - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 



File: rel_ 

dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. 

BIck, not 

Interfero. 

Blck, shiny 

Interfero. 

Dk. Grey, 

Interfero. 

Pink, not 

Dist. 

shiny 

Dist. 

(m) 

Dist. 

rough 

Dist. 

shiny 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 


(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.373 

3998.68 

8.473 

4000.15 

8.453 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.373 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.473 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.393 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.373 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.493 

3998.67 

8.413 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.393 

3998.68 

8.433 

4000.15 

8.413 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.393 

3998.68 

8.493 

4000.15 

8.453 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.553 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.473 

4000.15 

8.413 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.413 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.373 

3998.68 

8.433 

4000.15 

8.413 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.493 

4000.15 

8.393 

4009.75 

8.473 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.493 

4000.15 

8.473 

4009.75 

8.433 

3998.67 

8.413 

3998.68 

8.493 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.373 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.433 

3998.68 

8.433 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.453 

3998.67 

8.413 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.433 

4009.75 

8.473 

3998.67 

8.393 

3998.68 

8.453 

4000.15 

8.453 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.496 

6001.67 

10.416 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.356 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.376 

5999.74 

10.416 

6001.67 

10.456 

6001.70 

10.396 

6000.67 

10.436 

5999.74 

10.476 

6001.67 

10.396 

6001.70 

10.436 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.396 

6001.67 

10.356 

6001.70 

10.396 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.476 

6001.67 

10.496 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.376 

5999.74 

10.416 

6001.67 

10.396 

6001.70 

10.476 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.436 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.496 

6001.67 

10.476 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.416 

6001.70 

10.476 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.436 

6001.67 

10.456 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.456 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.476 

6001.67 

10.456 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.476 

6001.67 

10.416 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.436 

6001.67 

10.396 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.356 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.456 

6001.70 

10.476 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.496 

6001.67 

10.456 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.436 

5999.74 

10.416 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.416 

6000.67 

10.376 

5999.74 

10.496 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.376 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.476 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.436 

6000.67 

10.456 

5999.74 

10.476 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.436 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.476 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.396 

5999.74 

10.436 

6001.67 

10.436 

6001.70 

10.456 

6000.67 

10.416 

5999.74 

10.456 

6001.67 

10.456 

7999.24 

12.439 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.459 

8000.42 

12.459 

7999.24 

12.419 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.500 

8000.42 

12.479 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.500 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.479 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.479 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.399 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.439 

799924 

12.479 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.500 

8000.42 

12.479 

7999.24 

12.439 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.500 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.479 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.479 

7999.24 

12.439 

7998.05 

12.439 

7998.77 

12.459 

8000.42 

12.419 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.439 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.479 

8000.42 

12.459 

7999.24 

12.439 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.479 

8000.42 

12.419 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.379 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.459 

799924 

12.419 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.459 

8000.42 

12.459 

7999.24 

12.439 

7998.05 

12.379 

7998.77 

12.479 

8000.42 

12.419 


72 


Table A.l Data Setl - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 



File: rel_ 

dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. 

Blck, not 

Interfero. 

Blck, shiny 

Interfero. 

Dk. Grey, 

Interfero. 

Pink, not 

Dist. 

shiny 

Dist. 

(m) 

Dist. 

rough 

Dist. 

shiny 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 


(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.439 

8000.42 

12.459 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.479 

8000.42 

12.419 

7999.24 

12.439 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.459 

8000.42 

12.399 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.399 

7998.77 

12.459 

8000.42 

12.439 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.379 

7998.77 

12.419 

8000.42 

12.479 

7999.24 

12.500 

7998.05 

12.439 

7998.77 

12.459 

8000.42 

12.419 

7999.24 

12.459 

7998.05 

12.419 

7998.77 

12.479 

8000.42 

12.439 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.363 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.423 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.443 

10000.69 

14.483 

9999.7 

14.363 

9999.81 

14.504 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.423 

9999.81 

14.403 

10000.91 

14.403 

10000.69 

14.463 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.443 

10000.69 

14.423 

9999.7 

14.363 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.504 

10000.91 

14.483 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.443 

10000.69 

14.403 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.423 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.423 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.423 

10000.69 

14.423 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.423 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.423 

9999.81 

14.443 

10000.91 

14.443 

10000.69 

14.463 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.483 

10000.69 

14.423 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.483 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.499 

10000.91 

14.403 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.363 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.463 

9999.7 

14.363 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.463 

9999.7 

14.423 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.483 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.383 

9999.81 

14.443 

10000.91 

14.463 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.423 

9999.81 

14.463 

10000.91 

14.443 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.423 

10000.69 

14.483 

9999.7 

14.403 

9999.81 

14.443 

10000.91 

14.483 

10000.69 

14.443 

9999.7 

14.363 

9999.81 

14.483 

10000.91 

14.443 

14996.22 

19.425 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.505 

14996.90 

19.465 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.425 

14996.90 

19.385 

14996.22 

19.405 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.465 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.425 

14996.92 

19.485 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.425 

14995.35 

19.445 

14996.92 

19.385 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.385 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.485 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.485 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.425 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.385 

14996.92 

19.425 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.385 

14996.92 

19.505 

14996.90 

19.485 

14996.22 

19.425 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.425 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.425 

14995.35 

19.445 

14996.92 

19.525 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.445 

14995.35 

19.385 

14996.92 

19.485 

14996.90 

19.485 

14996.22 

19.485 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.485 

14996.22 

19.425 

14995.35 

19.445 

14996.92 

19.505 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.405 

14995.35 

19.425 

14996.92 

19.465 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.485 

14996.90 

19.465 

14996.22 

19.425 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.385 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.485 

14996.90 

19.385 

14996.22 

19.405 

14995.35 

19.385 

14996.92 

19.505 

14996.90 

19.425 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.445 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.465 

14996.92 

19.465 

14996.90 

19.445 

14996.22 

19.465 

14995.35 

19.405 

14996.92 

19.465 

14996.90 

19.425 

20009.44 

24.525 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.445 

20010.28 

24.505 

20011.23 

24.465 


73 


Table A.l Data Setl - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 



File: rel_ 

dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. 

Blck, not 

Interfero. 

Blck, shiny 

Interfero. 

Dk. Grey, 

Interfero. 

Pink, not 

Dist. 

shiny 

Dist. 

(m) 

Dist. 

rough 

Dist. 

shiny 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 


(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

20009.44 

24.425 

20011.32 

24.445 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.485 

20011.32 

24.485 

20010.28 

24.505 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.485 

20011.32 

24.485 

20010.28 

24.565 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.445 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.525 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.425 

20011.32 

24.425 

20010.28 

24.565 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.485 

20011.32 

24.425 

20010.28 

24.525 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.485 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.505 

20011.32 

24.445 

20010.28 

24.585 

20011.23 

24.425 

20009.44 

24.485 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.505 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.425 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.425 

20011.23 

24.425 

20009.44 

24.445 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.525 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.405 

20010.28 

24.505 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.445 

20011.32 

24.425 

20010.28 

24.445 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.445 

20011.32 

24.405 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.505 

20011.32 

24.425 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.405 

20009.44 

24.485 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.445 

20011.32 

24.425 

20010.28 

24.485 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.485 

20010.28 

24.545 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.425 

20011.32 

24.465 

20010.28 

24.485 

20011.23 

24.480 

20009.44 

24.445 

20011.32 

24.405 

20010.28 

24.485 

20011.23 

24.445 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.485 

20010.28 

24.505 

20011.23 

24.465 

20009.44 

24.465 

20011.32 

24.445 

20010.28 

24.485 

20011.23 

24.485 

30003.46 

34.405 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.525 

30007.11 

34.465 

30003.46 

34.565 

30003.76 

34.545 

30005.96 

34.705 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.545 

30003.76 

34.525 

30005.96 

34.625 

30007.11 

34.485 

30003.46 

34.545 

30003.76 

34.465 

30005.96 

34.625 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.505 

30003.76 

34.545 

30005.96 

34.585 

30007.11 

34.485 

30003.46 

34.525 

30003.76 

34.465 

30005.96 

34.545 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.565 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.505 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.525 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.605 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.525 

30003.76 

34.445 

30005.96 

34.645 

30007.11 

34.445 

30003.46 

34.000 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.605 

30007.11 

34.465 

30003.46 

34.545 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.525 

30007.11 

34.445 

30003.46 

34.465 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.585 

30007.11 

34.385 

30003.46 

34.525 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.585 

30007.11 

34.485 

30003.46 

34.465 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.525 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.485 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.545 

30007.11 

34.465 

30003.46 

34.545 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.525 

30007.11 

34.485 

30003.46 

34.505 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.505 

30007.11 

34.465 

30003.46 

34.585 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.625 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.465 

30003.76 

34.465 

30005.96 

34.605 

30007.11 

34.485 

30003.46 

34.545 

30003.76 

34.505 

30005.96 

34.645 

30007.11 

34.425 

30003.46 

34.625 

30003.76 

34.445 

30005.96 

34.485 

30007.11 

34.445 

30003.46 

34.545 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.565 

30007.11 

34.465 

30003.46 

34.445 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.565 

30007.11 

34.445 

30003.46 

34.585 

30003.76 

34.485 

30005.96 

34.505 

30007.11 

34.420 

30003.46 

34.445 

30003.76 

34.405 

30005.96 

34.465 

30007.11 

34.405 

39961.74 

44.405 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.485 

39965.70 

44.425 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.405 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.545 

39963.32 

44.465 

39965.70 

44.425 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.445 

39963.32 

44.525 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.545 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.445 

39965.70 

44.445 

39961.74 

44.465 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.485 

39965.70 

44.425 

39961.74 

44.545 

39963.03 

44.405 

39963.32 

44.485 

39965.70 

44.425 

39961.74 

44.465 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.585 

39965.70 

44.365 

39961.74 

44.525 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.605 

39965.70 

44.385 

39961.74 

44.565 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.445 

39965.70 

44.445 

39961.74 

44.405 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.585 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.485 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.445 

39965.70 

44.385 


74 


Table A.l Data Setl - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 



File: rel_ 

dist_anal.xls 

Interfero. 

Blck, not 

Interfero. 

Blck, shiny 

Interfero. 

Dk. Grey, 

Interfero. 

Pink, not 

Dist. 

shiny 

Dist. 

(m) 

Dist. 

rough 

Dist. 

shiny 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 


(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.445 

39963.32 

44.565 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.605 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.525 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.545 

39963.03 

44.505 

39963.32 

44.525 

39965.70 

44.385 

39961.74 

44.545 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.465 

39965.70 

44.425 

39961.74 

44.605 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.525 

39965.70 

44.445 

39961.74 

44.605 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.505 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.485 

39963.03 

44.465 

39963.32 

44.405 

39965.70 

44.445 

39961.74 

44.445 

39963.03 

44.485 

39963.32 

44.425 

39965.70 

44.385 

39961.74 

44.605 

39963.03 

44.365 

39963.32 

44.445 

39965.70 

44.385 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.445 

39963.32 

44.665 

39965.70 

44.405 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.405 

39963.32 

44.605 

39965.70 

44.385 

39961.74 

44.485 

39963.03 

44.445 

39963.32 

44.445 

39965.70 

44.385 

39961.74 

44.505 

39963.03 

44.425 

39963.32 

44.645 

39965.70 

44.425 



49914.07 

54.565 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.465 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.465 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.585 



49926.43 

54.385 



49914.07 

54.525 



49926.43 

54.405 



49914.07 

54.405 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.545 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.425 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.565 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.405 



49926.43 

54.385 



49914.07 

54.485 



49926.43 

54.425 



49914.07 

54.465 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.445 



49926.43 

54.485 



49914.07 

54.485 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.485 



49926.43 

54.405 



49914.07 

54.485 



49926.43 

54.405 



49914.07 

54.525 



49926.43 

54.405 



49914.07 

54.565 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.585 



49926.43 

54.385 



49914.07 

54.385 



49926.43 

54.485 



49914.07 

54.345 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.445 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.365 



49926.43 

54.465 



49914.07 

54.485 



49926.43 

54.445 



49914.07 

54.405 



49926.43 

54.425 


75 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 


Location: Environmentally controlled 
lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: 8_22_99_laser.xls 

Test date: Aug. 2, 1999 

Interfero. Dist. 

Yllw, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny - 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

recal. 

(m) 

0 

4.463 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.451 

0 

4.431 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.431 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.451 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.427 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.411 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.428 

0.00 

4.467 

0 

4.447 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.431 

0 

4.447 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.387 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.427 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.427 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.467 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.427 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.428 

0.00 

4.427 

0 

4.427 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.427 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.468 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.387 

0.00 

4.428 

0.00 

4.447 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.448 

0.00 

4.467 

0 

4.407 

0.00 

4.448 

2000.58 

6.433 

2001.73 

6.469 

2000.88 

6.450 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.449 

2000.88 

6.450 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.449 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.389 

2000.88 

6.450 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.409 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.493 

2001.73 

6.449 

2000.88 

6.450 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.409 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.449 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.389 

2000.88 

6.430 

2000.58 

6.433 

2001.73 

6.449 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.429 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.429 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.429 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.433 

2001.73 

6.429 

2000.88 

6.450 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.424 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.429 

2000.88 

6.450 

2000.58 

6.493 

2001.73 

6.409 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.404 

2000.88 

6.510 

2000.58 

6.493 

2001.73 

6.429 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.493 

2001.73 

6.404 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.493 

2001.73 

6.404 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.453 

2001.73 

6.424 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.473 

2001.73 

6.469 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.493 

2001.73 

6.424 

2000.88 

6.490 

2000.58 

6.433 

2001.73 

6.404 

2000.88 

6.470 

2000.58 

6.473 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.453 

4000.36 

8.452 

4000.01 

8.467 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.452 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.433 

4000.36 

8.492 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.493 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.407 

4000.17 

8.493 

4000.36 

8.472 


76 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 


Location: Environmentally controlled 
lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: 8_22_99_laser.xls 

Test date: Aug. 2, 1999 

Interfero. Dist. 

Yllw, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny - 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

recal. 

(m) 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.453 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.467 

4000.17 

8.433 

4000.36 

8.452 

4000.01 

8.427 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.467 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.452 

4000.01 

8.427 

4000.17 

8.433 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.427 

4000.17 

8.493 

4000.36 

8.432 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.493 

4000.36 

8.492 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.427 

4000.17 

8.453 

4000.36 

8.452 

4000.01 

8.407 

4000.17 

8.453 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.427 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.432 

4000.01 

8.427 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.433 

4000.36 

8.512 

4000.01 

8.447 

4000.17 

8.493 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.467 

4000.17 

8.433 

4000.36 

8.472 

4000.01 

8.407 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.492 

4000.01 

8.407 

4000.17 

8.473 

4000.36 

8.452 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.456 

5999.05 

10.475 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.470 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.470 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.450 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.470 

6000.09 

10.410 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.510 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.456 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.470 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.430 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.450 

6000.09 

10.450 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.450 

6000.09 

10.470 

6000.18 

10.456 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.516 

5999.05 

10.510 

6000.09 

10.470 

6000.18 

10.516 

5999.05 

10.450 

6000.09 

10.390 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.470 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.430 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.410 

6000.18 

10.476 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.470 

6000.18 

10.456 

5999.05 

10.490 

6000.09 

10.390 

6000.18 

10.456 

5999.05 

10.450 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.470 

6000.09 

10.430 

6000.18 

10.496 

5999.05 

10.490 

8000.24 

12.453 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.493 

8000.24 

12.453 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.428 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.413 

8001.45 

12.500 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.453 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.448 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.413 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 


77 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab. Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 


Location: Environmentally controlled 
lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: 8_22_99_laser.xls 

Test date: Aug. 2, 1999 

Interfero. Dist. 

Yllw, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny - 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

recal. 

(m) 

8000.24 

12.453 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.459 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.443 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.413 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.453 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.433 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.468 

8000.24 

12.428 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.408 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.488 

8000.24 

12.428 

8001.45 

12.479 

8000.17 

12.448 

9999.92 

14.432 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.492 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.492 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.443 

10002.66 

14.452 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.432 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.432 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.443 

10002.66 

14.432 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.432 

9999.92 

14.392 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.452 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.492 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.452 

9999.92 

14.392 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.452 

9999.92 

14.432 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.452 

9999.92 

14.432 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.452 

9999.92 

14.432 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.492 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.483 

10002.66 

14.472 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.423 

10002.66 

14.492 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.432 

9999.92 

14.412 

10000.87 

14.463 

10002.66 

14.472 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.414 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.390 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.394 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.454 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.414 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.425 

14990.23 

19.394 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.390 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.425 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.425 

14990.23 

19.370 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.445 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.465 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.414 

14998.16 

19.385 

14990.23 

19.410 


78 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab. Bldg. 220 
No Filter 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 


Location: Environmentally controlled 
lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: 8_22_99 laser.xls 

Test date: Aug. 2, 1999 

Interfero. Dist. 

Yllw, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny - 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

recal. 

(m) 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.385 

14990.23 

19.410 

14996.48 

19.454 

14998.16 

19.405 

14990.23 

19.430 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.385 

14990.23 

19.394 

14996.48 

19.454 

14998.16 

19.385 

14990.23 

19.370 

14996.48 

19.434 

14998.16 

19.425 

14990.23 

19.390 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.445 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.474 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.430 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.370 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.445 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.545 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.370 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.445 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.370 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.414 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.405 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.434 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.410 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.385 

19990.03 

24.390 

20010.77 

24.454 

20010.10 

24.425 

19990.03 

24.390 

30006.01 

34.450 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.970 

30006.01 

34.430 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.465 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.425 

30006.19 

34.405 

30524.89 

34.930 

30006.01 

34.425 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.485 

30006.19 

34.485 

30524.89 

34.970 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.970 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.990 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.970 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.970 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.465 

30524.89 

34.990 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.970 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

34.930 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

35.010 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.930 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.425 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

34.930 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.405 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.405 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

34.950 

30006.01 

34.445 

30006.19 

34.465 

30524.89 

34.990 

30006.01 

34.465 

30006.19 

34.445 

30524.89 

35.010 

30006.01 

34.425 

30006.19 

34.385 

30524.89 

34.950 

39994.27 

44.385 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.513 

39994.27 

44.365 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.513 


79 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 

Location: Environmentally controlled 
lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: 8_22_99_laser.xls 

Test date: Aug. 2, 1999 

Interfero. Dist. 

Yllw, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny - 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

recal. 






(m) 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.425 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.513 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.465 

0.00 

4.473 

39994.27 

44.365 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.465 

0.00 

4.473 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.465 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.425 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.385 

39994.04 

44.465 

0.00 

4.513 

39994.27 

44.365 

39994.04 

44.425 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.513 

39994.27 

44.435 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.513 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.365 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.465 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.485 

39994.04 

44.385 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.385 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.465 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.385 

39994.04 

44.425 

0.00 

4.513 

39994.27 

44.385 

39994.04 

44.445 

0.00 

4.493 

39994.27 

44.405 

39994.04 

44.405 

0.00 

4.513 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.445 

40112.49 

44.570 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.525 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.485 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.365 

49988.89 

54.405 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.505 

40112.49 

44.550 

49952.25 

54.405 

49988.89 

54.385 

40112.49 

44.565 

49952.25 

54.285 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.605 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.425 

40112.49 

44.565 

49952.25 

54.285 

49988.89 

54.425 

40112.49 

44.565 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.485 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.365 

49988.89 

54.485 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.605 

49952.25 

54.285 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.570 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.405 

40112.49 

44.605 

49952.25 

54.385 

49988.89 

54.505 

40112.49 

44.590 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.445 

40112.49 

44.625 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.565 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.505 

40112.49 

44.610 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.445 

40112.49 

44.565 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.465 

40112.49 

44.630 

49952.25 

54.325 

49988.89 

54.445 

40112.49 

44.590 

49952.25 

54.345 

49988.89 

54.425 

40112.49 

44.585 

49952.25 

54.305 

49988.89 

54.425 

40112.49 

44.625 





49066.14 

53.585 





49066.14 

53.585 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.545 





49066.14 

53.505 





49066.14 

53.585 





49066.14 

53.545 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.605 


80 


Table A.l Data Set 1 - Relative Distance Calibration: 0 m to 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: rel_dist_anal.xls 

Test dates: July 14-15, 1999 

Location: Environmentally controlled 
lab, Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

File: 8_22_99_laser.xls 

Test date: Aug. 2, 1999 

Interfero. Dist. 

Yllw, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny 

Interfero. Dist. 

Gm, not shiny - 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

(m) 

(mm) 

recal. 






(m) 





49066.14 

53.605 





49066.14 

53.545 





49066.14 

53.645 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.605 





49066.14 

53.625 





49066.14 

53.625 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.545 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.545 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.565 





49066.14 

53.525 


81 


APPENDIX B - Absolute Distance Measurements 


Table B. 1 Data Set 2 - Absolute Distance Calibration, 30 m and 60 m 


Location: Environmentally controlled lab. Bldg. 220 

No Filter 

Test date: July 22, 1999 


File: abs_dist.xls 

Distance 

Laser (m) 

Laser (m) 

Distance 

Laser 

(m) 

Run 1 

Run 2 

(m) 

(m) 

30.48 

30.430 

30.474 

60.96 

61.005 

30.48 

30.430 

30.474 

60.96 

60.985 

30.48 

30.450 

30.454 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.470 

30.490 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.450 

30.474 

60.96 

61.025 

30.48 

30.470 

30.474 

60.96 

60.985 

30.48 

30.430 

30.450 

60.96 

61.065 

30.48 

30.430 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.470 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.490 

30.454 

60.96 

61.025 

30.48 

30.470 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.450 

30.470 

60.96 

61.025 

30.48 

30.470 

30.494 

60.96 

61.025 

30.48 

30.470 

30.450 

60.96 

60.985 

30.48 

30.470 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.470 

30.490 

60.96 

61.025 

30.48 

30.490 

30.434 

60.96 

61.065 

30.48 

30.450 

30.450 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.470 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.470 

30.450 

60.96 

61.005 

30.48 

30.470 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.470 

30.454 

60.96 

60.985 

30.48 

30.470 

30.454 

60.96 

61.005 

30.48 

30.470 

30.470 

60.96 

61.045 

30.48 

30.410 

30.470 

60.96 

61.025 


Table B.2 Data Set 3 - Absolute Distance Calibration, 60 m to 108 m 


Location: Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

File: 100mcalib.xls 

Test Date: July 28, 1999 

Location: Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

File: 108m_calib.xls 

Test Date: August 2, 1999 

Tape Distance 

Wht, not shiny 

Tape Distance 

Wht., not shiny 

(m) 

(m) 

(m) 

(m) 

60 

60.066 

108.00 

108.019 

60 

59.986 

108.00 

108.019 

60 

60.066 

108.00 

108.054 

60 

60.046 

108.00 

108.054 

60 

60.026 

108.00 

108.039 

60 

60.026 

108.00 

108.014 

60 

60.026 

108.00 

108.014 

60 

60.046 

108.00 

108.034 

60 

60.046 

108.00 

108.074 

60 

60.006 

108.00 

108.054 

60 

60.046 

108.00 

108.034 

60 

60.066 

108.00 

108.014 

60 

60.026 

108.00 

108.014 

60 

60.066 

108.00 

108.034 

60 

60.046 

108.00 

108.034 

60 

60.026 

108.00 

108.034 


82 


Table B.2 Data Set 3 - Absolute Distance Calibration, 60 m to 108 m 


Location: Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

File: 100mcalib.xls 

Test Date: July 28, 1999 

Location: Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

File: 108m_calib.xls 

Test Date: August 2, 1999 

Tape Distance 

Wht, not shiny 

Tape Distance 

Wht., not shiny 

( m ) 

(m) 

( m ) 

(m) 

60 

60.026 

108.00 

108.034 

60 

60.022 

108.00 

108.014 

60 

60.022 

108.00 

108.074 

60 

60.022 

108.00 

108.014 

60 

60.042 

108.00 

108.054 

60 

60.022 

108.00 

108.054 

60 

60.046 

108.00 

108.034 

80 

79.982 

100.00 

99.954 

80 

80.002 

100.00 

100.010 

80 

80.002 

100.00 

99.970 

80 

80.002 

100.00 

100.030 

80 

80.022 

100.00 

100.010 

80 

80.062 

100.00 

100.010 

80 

80.002 

100.00 

99.990 

80 

80.062 

100.00 

99.970 

80 

80.022 

100.00 

99.950 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

99.970 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

100.005 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

99.985 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

99.965 

80 

80.082 

100.00 

100.005 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

100.005 

80 

80.062 

100.00 

99.985 

80 

80.062 

100.00 

100.025 

80 

80.022 

100.00 

100.005 

80 

79.982 

100.00 

100.025 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

100.025 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

100.005 

80 

80.042 

100.00 

99.985 

80 

80.022 

100.00 

99.945 

80 

80.082 

100.00 

100.005 

80 

80.062 

100.00 

99.985 

100 

100.062 



100 

100.122 



100 

100.182 



100 

100.162 



100 

100.162 



100 

100.182 



100 

100.102 



100 

100.142 



100 

100.062 



100 

100.162 



100 

100.162 



100 

100.102 



100 

100.102 



100 

100.162 



100 

100.162 



100 

100.142 



100 

100.142 



100 

100.122 



100 

100.102 



100 

100.082 



100 

100.182 




83 


Table B.2 Data Set 3 - Absolute Distance Calibration, 60 m to 108 m 


Location: Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

File: 100mcalib.xls 

Test Date: July 28, 1999 

Location: Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

File: 108m_calib.xls 

Test Date: August 2, 1999 

Tape Distance 
(m) 

Wht, not shiny 
(m) 

Tape Distance 
(m) 

Wht., not shiny 
(m) 

100 

100 

100 

100 

108 + 

108 

ins 

108 

III 

1 08 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 
i ns 

ius 

1 OR 

108 

108 

. 

108 

100.062 

100.122 

100.102 

100.142 

109.182 

109.182 

109.177 

109.157 

109.197 

109.157 
.109.177 . 

ess 

. 

109.107 

109.177 

109:177 

109.137 

109 117 

109 197 

109.197 

,09.137 

109.117 

109.137 




t Laser hit wall behind target. Data disregarded. 


84 


Table B.3 Data Set 4 - Absolute Distance Calibration: 5 m to 161 m 


Location: Hallway from Bldg. 226 to Comstar 
Test date: August 6, 1999 - white target 

August 1 0, 1999 - green and black tan 

Black and Green Targets -File: 5mtol60m_8 10 99.xls 
White Target - File: 5tol60m_8_6_99.xls 
>ets 

Distance 

(m) 

Without Filter 

Distance 

(m) 

With Filter 

Blk not shny 
(m) 

Gm not shny 
(m) 

Blk, not shny 
(m) 

Gm. not shny 
(m) 

Wht not shny 
(m) 

161.079 

161.039 

161.104 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.134 

161.079 

161.159 

161.204 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.474 

161.079 

161.159 

161.104 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.094 

161.079 

160.979 

161.004 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.074 

161.079 

161.019 

161.304 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.034 

161.079 

161.019 

161.184 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

162.034 

161.079 

161.199 

161.204 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.854 

161.079 

161.139 

161.124 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.594 

161.079 

160.999 

161.244 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.794 

161.079 

161.099 

161.244 

161.0790 

NA 

NA 

161.150 

141.059 

141.145 

140.990 

151.071 

151.219 

151.179 

151.130 

141.059 

141.085 

140.945 

151.071 

151.159 

151.239 

151.110 

141.059 

141.045 

140.985 

151.071 

151.419 

151.059 

151.150 

141.059 

141.085 

140.965 

151.071 

151.039 

151.239 

151.110 

141.059 

141.105 

140.945 

151.071 

151.419 

151.159 

151.030 

141.059 

141.125 

140.985 

151.071 

151.299 

151.199 

151.070 

141.059 

141.110 

141.045 

151.071 

151.219 

151.099 

151.150 

141.059 

141.210 

141.085 

151.071 

151.559 

151.179 

151.110 

141.059 

141.105 

141.045 

151.071 

151.259 

151.259 

151.070 

141.059 

141.170 

141.025 

151.071 

151.219 

151.074 

151.150 

120.000 

120.065 

119.965 

141.059 

141.294 

141.054 

141.070 

120.000 

120.105 

119.965 

141.059 

141.094 

141.149 

141.085 

120.000 

120.105 

119.985 

141.059 

141.174 

140.994 

141.165 

120.000 

120.065 

119.965 

141.059 

141.294 

141.114 

141.085 

120.000 

120.045 

119.945 

141.059 

141.394 

141.114 

141.065 

120.000 

120.105 

1 19.965 

141.059 

1412294 

141.174 

141.085 

120.000 

120.065 

1 19.965 

141.059 

141.194 

141.074 

141.085 

120.000 

120.125 

119.965 

141.059 

141.294 

141.154 

141.045 

120.000 

120.065 

120.165 

141.059 

141.234 

141.034 

141.105 

120.000 

120.025 

119.985 

141.059 

141.334 

141.434 

141.165 

79.990 

80.010 

80.070 

129.989 

130.074 

129.234 

130.045 

79.990 

79.970 

80.025 

129.989 

129.994 

129.934 

130.045 

79.990 

80.025 

80.010 

129.989 

129.974 

130.014 

130.025 

79.990 

80.010 

80.025 

129.989 

130.114 

130.014 

129.985 

79.990 

80.030 

80.050 

129.989 

129.974 

129.974 

130.005 

79.990 

80.010 

80.025 

129.989 

130.054 

130.014 

130.045 

79.990 

80.030 

80.025 

129.989 

129.934 

130.054 

130.085 

79.990 

79.990 

80.070 

129.989 

129.994 

130.074 

129.965 

79.990 

80.005 

80.045 

129.989 

129.994 

129.954 

130.045 

79.990 

79.990 

80.010 

129.989 

129.874 

130.094 

130.045 

60.596 

60.565 

60.630 

120.000 

1 19.994 

120.054 

120.000 

60.596 

60.585 

60.625 

120.000 

120.030 

120.050 

120.020 

60.596 

60.545 

60.605 

120.000 

120.094 

120.054 

120.000 

60.596 

60.565 

60.625 

120.000 

119.950 

120.054 

120.040 

60.596 

60.585 

60.665 

120.000 

120.010 

120.030 

120.020 

60.596 

60.525 

60.605 

120.000 

120.014 

120.114 

120.000 

60.596 

60.505 

60.625 

120.000 

119.990 

120.054 

119.980 

60.596 

60.545 

60.605 

120.000 

120.070 

120.014 

120.000 

60.596 

60.585 

60.625 

120.000 

120.110 

120.014 

120.040 

60.596 

60.565 

60.625 

120.000 

119.950 

120.034 

120.040 

50.425 

50.405 

50.445 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.080 

50.425 

50.425 

50.445 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.040 

50.425 

50.425 

50.425 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.020 

50.425 

50.425 

50.445 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.040 

50.425 

50.425 

50.465 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.020 

50.425 

50.385 

50.425 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.040 

50.425 

50.425 

50.425 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.040 

50.425 

50.405 

50.425 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.020 

50.425 

50.425 

50.445 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

119.980 


85 


Table B.3 Data Set 4 - Absolute Distance Calibration: 5 m to 161 m 


Location: Hallway from Bldg. 226 to Comstar Black and Green Targets -File: 5mtol60m 8 10 99.xls 

Test date: August 6, 1999 -white target White Target - File: 5tol60m 8 6 99.xls 

August 1 0, 1999 - green and black targets 

Distance 

(m) 

Without Filter 

Distance 

(m) 

With Filter 

Blk not shny 
(m) 

Gm not shny 
(m) 

Blk, not shny 
(m) 

Gm. not shny 
(m) 

Wht not shny 
(m) 

50.425 

50.425 

50.425 

120.000 

NA 

NA 

120.020 

39.998 

40.005 

39.985 

109.990 

110.090 

109.950 

1 10.020 

39.998 

40.045 

40.025 

109.990 

109.990 

110.050 

110.060 

39.998 

40.020 

40.025 

109.990 

110.070 

110.050 

110.060 

39.998 

40.060 

40.025 

109.990 

110.010 

109.990 

1 10.040 

39.998 

40.020 

40.025 

109.990 

109.970 

110.050 

110.020 

39.998 

40.000 

40.025 

109.990 

109.990 

110.070 

110.020 

39.998 

40.060 

40.025 

109.990 

1 10.090 

109.970 

110.040 

39.998 

40.020 

40.025 

109.990 

110.050 

110.030 

110.080 

39.998 

40.000 

40.025 

109.990 

110.050 

110.030 

110.040 

39.998 

40.000 

40.045 

109.990 

109.990 

110.030 

110.080 

30.097 

30.140 

30.120 

99.993 

99.990 

100.010 

100.056 

30.097 

30.140 

30.100 

99.993 

100.010 

100.030 

100.056 

30.097 

30.120 

30.120 

99.993 

100.010 

99.970 

100.056 

30.097 

30.140 

30.120 

99.993 

100.030 

100.010 

100.076 

30.097 

30.180 

30.120 

99.993 

100.050 

100.030 

100.056 

30.097 

30.140 

30.120 

99.993 

100.050 

100.010 

100.096 

30.097 

30.140 

30.140 

99.993 

100.030 

99.970 

100.016 

30.097 

30.120 

30.140 

99.993 

100.070 

100.010 

100.076 

30.097 

30.160 

30.120 

99.993 

100.010 

100.030 

100.076 

30.097 

30.140 

30.120 

99.993 

100.010 

100.010 

100.076 

19.975 

20.020 

19.985 

79.990 

80.025 

80.005 

80.011 

19.975 

20.040 

19.985 

79.990 

79.945 

80.005 

80.031 

19.975 

20.020 

20.005 

79.990 

80.050 

80.005 

79.991 

19.975 

20.005 

19.965 

79.990 

80.010 

80.050 

80.011 

19.975 

20.045 

20.005 

79.990 

80.005 

79.970 

80.031 

19.975 

19.985 

19.985 

79.990 

80.030 

79.985 

80.011 

19.975 

20.045 

20.005 

79.990 

80.090 

80.010 

80.011 

19.975 

20.045 

20.005 

79.990 

79.970 

80.010 

79.991 

19.975 

20.020 

19.985 

79.990 

79.970 

79.985 

80.011 

19.975 

20.045 

19.985 

79.990 

80.050 

79.965 

80.051 

10.002 

10.047 

10.031 

60.596 

60.605 

60.585 

60.631 

10.002 

10.067 

10.011 

60.596 

60.605 

60.585 

60.611 

10.002 

10.027 

9.991 

60.596 

60.665 

60.605 

60.611 

10.002 

10.067 

10.031 

60.596 

60.645 

60.550 

60.551 

10.002 

10.067 

10.011 

60.596 

60.665 

60.605 

60.591 

10.002 

10.047 

10.031 

60.596 

60.665 

60.605 

60.611 

10.002 

10.007 

10.031 

60.596 

60.625 

60.585 

60.611 

10.002 

10.047 

10.011 

60.596 

60.645 

60.545 

60.651 

10.002 

10.047 

10.031 

60.596 

60.625 

60.565 

60.611 

10.002 

10.067 

10.031 

60.596 

60.645 

60.585 

60.611 

5.009 

5.040 

5.000 

50.425 

50.485 

50.445 

50.471 

5.009 

5.040 

5.000 

50.425 

50.485 

50.465 

50.471 

5.009 

5.040 

5.020 

50.425 

50.465 

50.425 

50.451 

5.009 

5.060 

5.004 

50.425 

50.425 

50.465 

50.471 

5.009 

5.040 

5.040 

50.425 

50.465 

50.425 

50.431 

5.009 

5.020 

5.000 

50.425 

50.385 

50.465 

50.451 

5.009 

5.020 

5.000 

50.425 

50.445 

50.445 

50.471 

5.009 

5.040 

5.020 

50.425 

50.425 

50.465 

50.451 

5.009 

5.040 

4.979 

50.425 

50.485 

50.465 

50.471 

5.009 

5.040 

5.020 

50.425 

50.465 

50.465 

50.491 




39.998 

40.025 

40.045 

40.031 




39.998 

40.025 

40.045 

40.031 




39.998 

40.045 

40.045 

40.051 




39.998 

40.005 

40.025 

40.031 




39.998 

40.025 

40.025 

40.031 




39.998 

40.025 

40.045 

40.011 




39.998 

40.045 

40.045 

40.031 




39.998 

40.060 

40.045 

40.051 




39.998 

40.025 

40.040 

40.011 




39.998 

40.045 

40.045 

40.051 


86 


Table B.3 Data Set 4 - Absolute Distance Calibration: 5 m to 161 m 


Location: Hallway from Bldg. 226 to Comstar 
Test date: August 6, 1999 - white target 

August 10, 1999 - green and black tarj 

Black and Green Targets -File: 5mtol60m 8 10 99.xls 
White Target - File: 5tol60m 8 6 99.xls 

^ets 

Distance 

(m) 

Without Filter 

Distance 

(m) 

With Filter 

Blk not shny 
(m) 

Gm not shny 
(m) 

Blk, not shny 
(m) 

Gm. not shny 
(m) 

Wht not shny 
(m) 




30.097 

30.100 

30.140 

30.151 




30.097 

30.080 

30.120 

30.151 




30.097 

30.120 

30.160 

30.151 




30.097 

30.080 

30.140 

30.131 




30.097 

30.060 

30.120 

30.131 




30.097 

30.160 

30.120 

30.131 




30.097 

30.140 

30.140 

30.171 




30.097 

30.120 

30.160 

30.151 




30.097 

30.120 

30.160 

30.171 




30.097 

30.100 

30.140 

30.171 




19.975 

19.985 

20.025 

19.991 




19.975 

19.980 

20.025 

20.031 




19.975 

19.980 

20.025 

19.971 




19.975 

19.965 

20.025 

20.031 




19.975 

19.985 

20.025 

20.011 




19.975 

19.965 

20.005 

20.011 




19.975 

19.965 

20.025 

20.011 




19.975 

19.945 

20.025 

19.991 




19.975 

19.985 

19.985 

20.031 




19.975 

19.985 

20.045 

20.011 




10.002 

9.966 

10.051 

10.010 




10.002 

9.966 

10.051 

10.015 




10.002 

9.966 

10.051 

10.035 




10.002 

9.966 

10.051 

10.055 




10.002 

10.007 

10.051 

10.035 




10.002 

9.986 

10.051 

10.055 




10.002 

9.986 

10.051 

10.015 




10.002 

10.027 

10.011 

10.055 




10.002 

10.007 

10.011 

10.050 




10.002 

10.007 

10.011 

10.055 




5.009 

4.959 

5.040 

5.026 




5.009 

4.979 

5.040 

4.997 




5.009 

4.959 

5.020 

4.997 




5.009 

5.000 

5.040 

5.037 




5.009 

4.979 

5.040 

5.017 




5.009 

5.000 

5.040 

5.017 




5.009 

5.000 

5.000 

5.012 




5.009 

4.979 

5.040 

5.012 




5.009 

4.959 

5.040 

4.971 




5.009 

5.000 

5.040 

5.012 


87 


Table B.4 Data Set 5 - Absolute Distance Calibration: 10 m to 150 m 


Location: 
No Filter 
Test date: 

Tunnel, Bldg. 101 

April 28, 2001 







File: calib 

_form_4_28_ 

01.xls 

Distance 

(m) 

Black 

White 

Silver, sh 


3M Long Distance Performance (LDP) 

iny 

0° 

45° 

60° 

Laser Dist 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

9.997 

10.023 

80 

10.007 

156 

9.977 

206 

10.173 

228 

10.009 

208 

10.044 

182 

9.997 

9.957 

80 

9.986 

156 

9.972 

206 

10.169 

236 

9.968 

208 

10.024 

182 

9.997 

10.018 

80 

10.007 

156 

9.952 

206 

10.109 

226 

9.983 

208 

9.963 

182 

9.997 

9.957 

80 

9.946 

156 

9.912 

206 

10.129 

228 

9.983 

208 

10.024 

182 

9.997 

9.998 

80 

9.966 

156 

9.972 

206 

10.109 

226 

9.983 

208 

10.044 

182 

9.997 

9.998 

80 

9.942 

156 

10.013 

204 

10.149 

230 

10.004 

208 

9.983 

182 

9.997 

9.998 

80 

9.982 

156 

9.972 

206 

10.169 

230 

9.943 

208 

10.024 

182 

9.997 

9.977 

80 

10.023 

156 

9.972 

206 

10.109 

224 

10.004 

208 

10.024 

182 

9.997 

9.988 

80 

10.003 

156 

9.932 

204 

10.189 

230 

9.963 

208 

10.024 

182 

9.997 

10.018 

80 

9.982 

156 

9.972 

204 

10.129 

228 

9.943 

208 

10.044 

182 

19.991 

20.024 

82 

19.999 

152 

19.999 

206 

20.153 

230 

20.084 

190 

20.144 

162 

19.991 

19.984 

82 

19.999 

152 

19.939 

206 

20.108 

224 

20.064 

190 

20.164 

162 

19.991 

20.004 

84 

19.959 

152 

19.959 

206 

20.164 

232 

20.064 

190 

20.124 

162 

19.991 

19.984 

82 

19.959 

152 

19.939 

206 

20.124 

226 

20.064 

190 

20.164 

162 

19.991 

20.004 

84 

19.939 

152 

19.979 

206 

20.124 

224 

20.064 

190 

20.104 

162 

19.991 

20.004 

82 

19.979 

152 

19.959 

206 

20.104 

224 

20.064 

190 

20.184 

162 

19.991 

20.004 

82 

19.999 

152 

19.959 

206 

20.144 

230 

20.084 

190 

20.124 

162 

19.991 

20.004 

82 

19.979 

152 

19.979 

206 

20.164 

234 

20.064 

190 

20.164 

162 

19.991 

19.964 

82 

19.959 

152 

19.959 

206 

20.144 

230 

20.064 

190 

20.124 

160 

19.991 

20.004 

82 

19.979 

152 

19.979 

206 

20.144 

232 

20.084 

190 

20.164 

162 

29.986 

29.914 

70 

29.954 

140 

29.954 

192 

30.074 

232 

29.974 

202 

30.014 

172 

29.986 

29.934 

70 

29.934 

140 

29.974 

192 

30.094 

224 

29.954 

200 

29.970 

172 

29.986 

29.914 

70 

29.934 

140 

29.974 

192 

30.094 

228 

29.954 

200 

29.974 

172 

29.986 

29.894 

70 

29.974 

140 

29.934 

192 

30.054 

224 

29.934 

202 

29.970 

172 

29.986 

29.954 

70 

29.974 

140 

29.974 

192 

30.094 

224 

29.930 

202 

29.990 

172 

29.986 

29.914 

70 

29.974 

140 

29.974 

192 

30.074 

226 

29.914 

200 

29.990 

172 

29.986 

29.934 

70 

29.974 

140 

29.974 

192 

30.074 

228 

29.954 

202 

29.950 

172 

29.986 

29.934 

70 

29.934 

140 

29.974 

192 

30.094 

232 

29.914 

202 

29.990 

172 

29.986 

29.934 

70 

29.974 

140 

29.954 

192 

30.054 

224 

29.934 

200 

29.994 

172 

29.986 

29.934 

70 

29.994 

140 

29.954 

192 

30.094 

224 

29.934 

200 

29.990 

172 

39.988 

39.95 

62 

39.97 

124 

39.97 

192 

40.03 

226 

39.970 

196 

40.010 

164 

39.988 

39.97 

60 

39.99 

124 

39.93 

192 

40.03 

226 

39.950 

196 

39.965 

164 

39.988 

39.93 

60 

40.01 

124 

39.99 

192 

40.05 

224 

39.950 

196 

39.970 

164 

39.988 

39.97 

62 

40.01 

124 

39.93 

192 

40.05 

224 

39.950 

196 

40.010 

164 

39.988 

39.95 

62 

39.99 

124 

39.99 

192 

40.03 

226 

39.970 

196 

39.970 

164 

39.988 

39.95 

60 

39.99 

124 

39.97 

192 

40.03 

228 

39.950 

196 

40.010 

164 

39.988 

39.99 

60 

40.01 

124 

39.95 

192 

40.05 

222 

39.970 

196 

39.990 

164 

39.988 

39.93 

60 

39.99 

124 

39.99 

194 

40.03 

226 

39.930 

196 

39.990 

164 

39.988 

39.93 

60 

39.99 

124 

39.93 

192 

40.05 

226 

39.970 

196 

40.005 

164 

39.988 

39.95 

60 

40.01 

124 

39.93 

192 

40.03 

222 

39.970 

196 

39.950 

164 

49.981 

49.99 

52 

49.965 

112 

49.945 

188 

50.01 

222 

49.925 

190 

49.945 

130 

49.981 

49.965 

52 

49.965 

112 

49.985 

188 

49.985 

222 

49.945 

190 

49.965 

130 

49.981 

49.985 

52 

49.985 

112 

49.965 

188 

50.005 

222 

49.945 

190 

49.945 

130 

49.981 

49.985 

52 

50.005 

112 

49.925 

188 

50.005 

222 

49.945 

190 

49.950 

130 

49.981 

49.925 

54 

50.005 

112 

49.985 

188 

50.005 

222 

49.945 

190 

49.905 

130 

49.981 

50.005 

54 

49.965 

112 

49.985 

188 

49.965 

222 

49.905 

190 

49.945 

130 

49.981 

49.985 

54 

49.965 

112 

49.985 

188 

50.005 

222 

49.945 

190 

49.945 

130 

49.981 

50.025 

54 

50.005 

112 

49.945 

188 

50.005 

222 

49.905 

190 

49.945 

130 

49.981 

49.985 

52 

49.965 

112 

49.985 

188 

49.965 

222 

49.945 

190 

49.945 

130 

49.981 

49.985 

52 

50.005 

112 

49.945 

188 

49.985 

222 

49.925 

190 

49.905 

130 

59.977 

59.99 

48 

59.97 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.99 

218 

59.865 

186 

59.925 

146 

59.977 

60.05 

48 

60.01 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.985 

220 

59.885 

186 

59.905 

146 

59.977 

60.01 

48 

59.99 

102 

59.95 

182 

59.985 

218 

59.905 

188 

59.865 

146 

59.977 

59.95 

48 

59.99 

102 

59.99 

182 

59.985 

218 

59.905 

186 

59.905 

146 

59.977 

59.99 

48 

59.95 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.965 

218 

59.865 

186 

59.905 

146 

59.977 

60.01 

48 

60.01 

102 

59.93 

182 

59.925 

218 

59.905 

186 

59.925 

146 

59.977 

59.95 

46 

60.03 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.945 

218 

59.905 

186 

59.885 

146 


88 


Table B.4 Data Set 5 - Absolute Distance Calibration: 10 m to 150 m 


Location: 
No Filter 
Test date: 

Tunnel, Bldg. 101 

April 28, 2001 







File: calib_form_4_28_ 

_01.xls 

Distance 

(m) 

Black 

White 

Silver, shiny 

3M Long 

Distance Performance (LDP) 


0° 

45° 

60° 

Laser Dist 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

59.977 

59.99 

48 

60.01 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.985 

220 

59.905 

186 

59.865 

146 

59.977 

59.99 

48 

59.99 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.965 

218 

59.905 

186 

59.905 

146 

59.977 

59.99 

48 

59.97 

102 

59.97 

182 

59.985 

218 

59.905 

186 

59.905 

146 

69.971 

69.985 

42 

69.985 

94 

69.945 

178 

69.965 

216 

69.945 

186 

69.925 

140 

69.971 

69.985 

42 

69.965 

94 

69.985 

178 

69.925 

216 

69.945 

186 

69.885 

138 

69.971 

70.005 

42 

69.965 

94 

69.965 

178 

69.985 

216 

69.945 

186 

69.945 

140 

69.971 

69.985 

42 

69.985 

94 

69.965 

178 

69.965 

216 

69.925 

186 

69.945 

140 

69.971 

69.985 

42 

69.985 

94 

69.965 

178 

69.925 

216 

69.945 

186 

69.925 

140 

69.971 

69.985 

42 

69.965 

94 

69.925 

178 

69.965 

216 

69.945 

186 

69.925 

138 

69.971 

70.025 

42 

69.965 

94 

69.945 

178 

69.965 

216 

69.945 

186 

69.885 

140 

69.971 

69.945 

42 

69.985 

94 

69.965 

178 

69.985 

216 

69.905 

186 

69.905 

140 

69.971 

69.945 

44 

70.005 

94 

69.965 

178 

69.965 

216 

69.925 

184 

69.905 

140 

69.971 

69.985 

42 

69.985 

94 

69.965 

178 

69.945 

216 

69.905 

186 

69.925 

140 

79.967 

79.985 

40 

79.965 

86 

79.965 

182 

79.965 

214 

79.865 

184 

79.925 

120 

79.967 

80.025 

38 

79.965 

86 

79.965 

184 

79.945 

214 

79.845 

184 

79.885 

120 

79.967 

79.925 

40 

79.985 

88 

79.885 

182 

79.945 

214 

79.845 

184 

79.905 

122 

79.967 

80.005 

40 

79.985 

86 

79.945 

182 

79.965 

214 

79.885 

184 

79.945 

122 

79.967 

79.945 

40 

79.965 

86 

79.965 

184 

79.965 

214 

79.885 

184 

79.945 

120 

79.967 

79.965 

40 

80.025 

88 

79.965 

182 

79.905 

214 

79.905 

184 

79.925 

120 

79.967 

80.005 

38 

80.025 

88 

79.905 

182 

79.965 

214 

79.845 

184 

79.925 

122 

79.967 

79.965 

40 

79.965 

86 

79.965 

182 

79.945 

214 

79.865 

184 

79.945 

122 

79.967 

79.985 

38 

79.965 

86 

79.945 

182 

79.965 

214 

79.865 

184 

79.885 

120 

79.967 

80.025 

40 

79.985 

88 

79.945 

182 

79.985 

214 

79.905 

184 

79.945 

122 

89.961 

89.973 

38 

89.982 

84 

89.942 

184 

89.893 

212 

89.868 

184 

89.928 

112 

89.961 

89.938 

38 

89.958 

84 

89.922 

182 

89.893 

214 

89.828 

184 

89.988 

112 

89.961 

89.993 

38 

89.938 

84 

89.962 

182 

89.888 

214 

89.828 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.953 

38 

89.998 

84 

89.942 

182 

89.933 

214 

89.868 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.933 

38 

89.978 

84 

89.902 

182 

89.933 

214 

89.888 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.973 

40 

89.958 

84 

89.942 

182 

89.908 

214 

89.868 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.953 

38 

89.978 

84 

89.922 

184 

89.933 

214 

89.868 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.973 

38 

89.978 

84 

89.942 

182 

89.948 

214 

89.848 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.993 

38 

89.978 

84 

89.942 

184 

89.948 

214 

89.828 

184 

89.968 

112 

89.961 

89.953 

38 

89.958 

84 

89.902 

184 

89.888 

214 

89.868 

184 

89.988 

112 

99.955 

99.964 

34 

99.919 

78 

99.944 

184 

99.928 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.964 

102 

99.955 

99.984 

34 

99.979 

78 

99.939 

184 

99.924 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.964 

102 

99.955 

99.944 

36 

99.959 

78 

99.939 

184 

99.884 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.924 

102 

99.955 

99.964 

36 

99.959 

78 

99.959 

184 

99.924 

212 

99.864 

182 

99.984 

102 

99.955 

100.004 

36 

99.959 

78 

99.919 

184 

99.884 

210 

99.844 

182 

99.984 

102 

99.955 

99.964 

36 

99.919 

78 

99.939 

184 

99.904 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.964 

102 

99.955 

99.924 

36 

99.959 

80 

99.959 

184 

99.944 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.964 

102 

99.955 

100.004 

36 

99.959 

78 

99.939 

184 

99.944 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.964 

102 

99.955 

100.044 

36 

99.959 

78 

99.939 

184 

99.924 

210 

99.864 

182 

99.984 

102 

99.955 

99.984 

36 

99.959 

78 

99.899 

184 

99.884 

210 

99.824 

182 

99.944 

102 

109.949 

109.959 

34 

109.939 

74 

109.954 

176 

109.914 

208 

109.854 

180 

109.914 

98 

109.949 

109.879 

34 

109.934 

74 

109.874 

174 

109.984 

208 

109.854 

180 

109.934 

98 

109.949 

109.979 

34 

109.934 

76 

109.914 

174 

109.934 

208 

109.874 

180 

109.954 

98 

109.949 

109.914 

34 

109.934 

76 

109.954 

174 

109.914 

208 

109.834 

180 

109.954 

98 

109.949 

109.919 

34 

109.934 

74 

109.894 

176 

109.934 

208 

109.854 

180 

109.954 

98 

109.949 

109.854 

34 

109.934 

76 

109.934 

174 

109.914 

208 

109.874 

180 

109.974 

98 

109.949 

109.959 

34 

109.894 

74 

109.934 

174 

109.934 

208 

109.814 

180 

109.974 

98 

109.949 

109.954 

34 

109.954 

74 

109.894 

174 

109.934 

208 

109.854 

180 

109.954 

98 

109.949 

109.959 

34 

109.934 

76 

109.914 

176 

109.934 

208 

109.874 

180 

109.974 

98 

109.949 

109.974 

34 

109.914 

74 

109.934 

174 

109.914 

208 

109.874 

180 

109.954 

98 

119.944 

1 19.93 

34 

119.914 

72 

119.934 

170 

119.914 

206 

119.874 

170 

1 19.934 

88 

119.944 

1 19.99 

34 

119.874 

72 

119.934 

174 

119.934 

206 

119.894 

170 

119.954 

88 

1 19.944 

119.95 

34 

119.93 

72 

119.934 

168 

119.934 

206 

119.874 

172 

119.934 

88 

119.944 

119.87 

34 

119.93 

72 

119.934 

170 

119.934 

206 

119.954 

170 

119.954 

88 

119.944 

119.93 

34 

119.89 

72 

119.914 

168 

119.934 

206 

1 19.984 

170 

119.914 

88 


89 


Table B.4 Data Set 5 - Absolute Distance Calibration: 10 m to 150 m 


Location: 
No Filter 
Test date: 

Tunnel, Bldg. 101 

April 28, 2001 







File: calib_form_4 28 

_01.xls 

Distance 

(m) 

Black 

White 

Silver, shiny 

3M Long 

Distance Performance (LDP) 


0° 

45° 

60° 

Laser Dist 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

Laser Dist. 
(m) 

Inten. 

119.944 

119.97 

34 

119.91 

72 

119.934 

168 

119.914 

206 

119.894 

170 

119.914 

88 

119.944 

119.93 

34 

119.91 

72 

1 19.93 

168 

119.934 

206 

119.894 

170 

119.954 

88 

119.944 

119.99 

34 

1 19.93 

72 

119.95 

168 

119.934 

206 

119.894 

170 

119.950 

88 

119.944 

119.91 

34 

119.87 

72 

119.914 

168 

119.914 

206 

119.874 

172 

119.934 

88 

119.944 

119.89 

34 

119.874 

72 

119.95 

168 

119.894 

206 

119.854 

170 

119.954 

88 

129.941 

129.91 

36 

129.91 

68 

129.93 

166 

129.91 

204 

129.910 

162 

129.890 

80 

129.941 

129.91 

36 

129.89 

68 

129.91 

166 

129.91 

204 

129.930 

162 

129.890 

80 

129.941 

129.97 

36 

129.89 

68 

129.95 

166 

129.89 

204 

129.910 

162 

129.910 

80 

129.941 

129.93 

36 

129.91 

68 

129.89 

166 

129.87 

204 

129.910 

162 

129.910 

80 

129.941 

129.93 

36 

129.91 

68 

129.95 

166 

129.93 

204 

129.910 

162 

129.910 

80 

129.941 

129.95 

36 

129.89 

68 

129.93 

166 

129.93 

204 

129.950 

162 

129.910 

80 

129.941 

129.95 

36 

129.93 

68 

129.93 

164 

129.93 

204 

129.910 

162 

129.870 

80 

129.941 

129.95 

36 

129.91 

68 

129.91 

166 

129.93 

204 

129.890 

162 

129.930 

80 

129.941 

129.87 

36 

129.87 

68 

129.91 

166 

129.93 

204 

129.930 

162 

129.890 

80 

129.941 

129.91 

36 

129.91 

68 

129.91 

166 

129.91 

204 

129.890 

162 

129.910 

80 

139.939 

140.048 

44 

139.928 

68 

139.924 

156 

139.898 

204 

139.873 

154 

139.968 

82 

139.939 

139.968 

46 

139.884 

68 

139.884 

158 

139.893 

204 

139.873 

154 

139.908 

82 

139.939 

139.988 

44 

139.864 

68 

139.944 

162 

139.913 

204 

139.873 

154 

139.928 

82 

139.939 

140.008 

44 

139.904 

68 

139.944 

162 

139.893 

204 

139.893 

154 

139.928 

82 

139.939 

139.928 

44 

139.904 

68 

139.944 

162 

139.893 

204 

139.873 

154 

139.928 

82 

139.939 

139.968 

46 

139.904 

68 

139.944 

164 

139.913 

204 

139.893 

154 

139.928 

82 

139.939 

140.028 

44 

139.904 

68 

139.944 

162 

139.933 

204 

139.933 

154 

139.908 

82 

139.939 

139.968 

44 

139.904 

68 

139.944 

164 

139.893 

204 

139.913 

154 

139.928 

82 

139.939 

139.988 

44 

139.864 

68 

139.944 

162 

139.893 

204 

139.893 

154 

139.908 

82 

139.939 

139.928 

44 

139.904 

68 

139.944 

162 

139.913 

204 

139.893 

154 

139.948 

82 

149.930 

149.87 

64 

149.79 

76 

149.91 

152 

149.89 

200 

149.91 

152 

150.070 

92 

149.930 

149.89 

64 

149.83 

76 

149.91 

152 

149.89 

200 

149.89 

152 

150.110 

92 

149.930 

149.93 

62 

149.81 

76 

149.87 

152 

149.89 

200 

149.89 

152 

150.090 

92 

149.930 

149.89 

64 

149.77 

76 

149.87 

152 

149.91 

200 

149.89 

152 

150.070 

92 

149.930 

149.85 

62 

149.81 

76 

149.91 

152 

149.89 

200 

149.91 

152 

150.070 

92 

149.930 

149.89 

64 

149.81 

76 

149.89 

152 

149.89 

200 

149.91 

152 

150.070 

92 

149.930 

149.85 

64 

149.81 

76 

149.89 

152 

149.87 

200 

149.89 

152 

150.090 

92 

149.930 

149.83 

64 

149.79 

76 

149.93 

152 

149.89 

200 

149.91 

152 

150.070 

92 

149.930 

149.95 

62 

149.77 

76 

149.89 

158 

149.85 

200 

149.97 

152 

150.090 

92 

149.930 

149.87 

62 

149.85 

76 

149.91 

152 

149.85 

200 

149.91 

152 

150.050 

92 

149.930 

149.95 

62 

149.81 

76 

149.91 

158 

149.89 

200 

149.87 

152 

150.090 

92 


90 


Table B.5 Data Set 6 - Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 







File: rot_calib_l 1_ 

01_01.xls 


Silver, shiny 


Rotation Angle ( 0 ) 

Distance 

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

10 

9.947 

200 

9.987 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.128 

98 

10.268 

84 

10.688 

86 

10 

9.987 

200 

10.008 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.068 

98 

10.268 

86 

10.668 

86 

10 

9.987 

200 

10.008 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.068 

98 

10.248 

84 

10.668 

86 

10 

9.927 

200 

9.947 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.068 

98 

10.288 

86 

10.668 

86 

10 

9.947 

200 

9.947 

170 

9.987 

126 

10.108 

98 

10.268 

84 

10.688 

86 

10 

9.947 

200 

10.008 

170 

9.987 

126 

10.068 

98 

10.248 

86 

10.668 

86 

10 

9.987 

200 

9.987 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.108 

98 

10.228 

84 

10.668 

86 

10 

9.967 

200 

10.008 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.088 

98 

10.248 

86 

10.648 

86 

10 

9.987 

200 

10.008 

170 

10.028 

126 

10.088 

98 

10.288 

84 

10.628 

86 

10 

10.008 

200 

9.987 

170 

9.987 

126 

10.108 

98 

10.288 

84 

10.688 

86 

20 

19.962 

200 

20.002 

176 

19.982 

132 

20.022 

98 

19.982 

80 

19.862 

72 

20 

19.982 

200 

20.002 

176 

19.982 

132 

20.062 

98 

19.982 

80 

19.842 

72 

20 

19.982 

200 

19.982 

176 

19.962 

130 

20.022 

98 

20.002 

80 

19.842 

72 

20 

19.922 

200 

20.002 

176 

19.962 

132 

20.062 

98 

20.022 

80 

19.902 

72 

20 

19.962 

200 

20.002 

176 

20.002 

130 

20.002 

98 

20.022 

80 

19.842 

72 

20 

19.982 

202 

20.002 

176 

19.982 

132 

20.042 

98 

20.042 

80 

19.822 

74 

20 

19.982 

200 

19.982 

176 

20.002 

130 

20.022 

98 

20.022 

80 

19.822 

74 

20 

19.982 

200 

20.002 

176 

19.982 

130 

20.062 

98 

20.002 

80 

19.842 

74 

20 

19.982 

200 

19.962 

176 

20.002 

132 

20.002 

98 

20.002 

80 

19.802 

74 

20 

19.922 

200 

19.982 

176 

20.022 

132 

20.042 

98 

20.022 

80 

19.862 

72 

30 

29.96 

190 

29.96 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.06 

80 

30.38 

78 

30.6 

76 

30 

29.98 

190 

29.98 

148 

30.04 

106 

30.08 

80 

30.4 

78 

30.48 

66 

30 

29.96 

190 

29.98 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.12 

80 

30.42 

78 

30.34 

58 

30 

29.98 

190 

29.94 

150 

30.04 

106 

30.08 

80 

30.42 

78 

30.36 

60 

30 

29.98 

190 

29.94 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.1 

80 

30.42 

78 

30.36 

58 

30 

29.98 

190 

29.98 

150 

30.02 

106 

30.1 

80 

30.4 

78 

30.36 

58 

30 

29.96 

190 

29.98 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.1 

80 

30.38 

78 

30.34 

58 

30 

29.96 

190 

29.94 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.12 

80 

30.44 

78 

30.32 

58 

30 

29.92 

190 

29.98 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.08 

80 

30.52 

78 

30.34 

58 

30 

29.94 

190 

29.98 

150 

30.06 

106 

30.08 

80 

30.52 

80 

30.36 

58 

40 

39.94 

192 

39.98 

148 

39.996 

96 

39.916 

72 

40.556 

80 

41.016 

58 

40 

39.98 

190 

39.976 

148 

39.976 

96 

39.916 

72 

40.416 

68 

41.076 

58 

40 

39.94 

190 

39.936 

148 

39.996 

96 

39.956 

72 

39.936 

60 

41.016 

58 

40 

39.94 

190 

39.976 

148 

39.996 

96 

39.936 

72 

39.956 

60 

40.976 

58 

40 

39.96 

192 

39.956 

148 

40.016 

96 

39.956 

72 

39.996 

62 

41.076 

58 

40 

39.96 

190 

39.996 

148 

39.976 

96 

39.916 

72 

39.936 

62 

41.016 

58 

40 

39.94 

190 

39.976 

148 

39.976 

94 

39.916 

72 

39.976 

62 

41.056 

58 

40 

39.94 

192 

39.936 

148 

39.976 

94 

39.956 

72 

39.936 

62 

40.616 

62 

40 

39.94 

190 

39.976 

148 

40.016 

96 

39.916 

72 

39.976 

62 

40.996 

58 

40 

39.94 

192 

39.956 

148 

39.996 

94 

39.956 

72 

39.956 

62 

40.996 

58 

50 

49.922 

184 

50.002 

142 

50.042 

96 

50.302 

72 

50.622 

62 

51.102 

64 

50 

49.962 

184 

49.962 

140 

50.022 

94 

50.322 

72 

50.662 

62 

51.102 

64 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.982 

140 

50.022 

94 

50.262 

72 

50.662 

62 

51.102 

66 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.942 

140 

50.042 

94 

50.322 

72 

50.662 

62 

51.062 

66 

50 

49.922 

184 

49.962 

140 

50.042 

94 

50.302 

72 

50.642 

62 

51.062 

66 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.962 

140 

50.042 

94 

50.302 

72 

50.622 

62 

51.082 

64 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.982 

140 

50.042 

96 

50.262 

72 

50.642 

62 

51.062 

64 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.962 

140 

50.022 

94 

50.282 

72 

50.642 

62 

51.042 

66 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.982 

140 

50.022 

94 

50.302 

72 

50.622 

62 

51.082 

66 

50 

49.942 

184 

49.982 

140 

50.022 

94 

50.322 

72 

50.662 

62 

51.062 

66 

60 

59.968 

184 

59.984 

134 

60.019 

84 

60.094 

62 

60.47 

60 

60.685 

70 

60 

59.908 

184 

59.959 

136 

60.034 

84 

60.05 

62 

60.49 

60 

60.725 

70 

60 

59.908 

184 

59.919 

134 

59.994 

84 

60.09 

62 

60.49 

60 

60.745 

70 

60 

59.948 

184 

59.939 

136 

60.014 

84 

60.07 

64 

60.485 

60 

60.725 

70 

60 

59.928 

184 

59.919 

136 

60.034 

84 

60.11 

62 

60.51 

60 

60.745 

70 

60 

59.988 

184 

59.919 

136 

59.994 

84 

60.09 

64 

60.53 

60 

60.745 

68 


91 


Table B.5 Data Set 6 - Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter File: rot_calib_ll_01_01.xls 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 


Distance 

(m) 

Silver, shiny 






Rotation 

Angle ( 0 ) 





0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

Dist. (m) 

In ten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

60 

59.964 

184 

59.979 

134 

60.034 

84 

60.09 

62 

60.49 

60 

60.765 

68 

60 

59.944 

184 

59.939 

134 

60.034 

82 

60.07 

62 

60.51 

60 

60.765 

68 

60 

59.944 

184 

59.919 

134 

60.034 

84 

60.09 

62 

60.485 

60 

60.725 

68 

60 

59.904 

184 

59.919 

134 

60.034 

84 

60.07 

64 

60.49 

60 

60.765 

68 

70 

69.922 

182 

69.982 

112 

70.042 

68 

70.282 

52 

70.962 

52 

71.082 

48 

70 

69.962 

182 

70.002 

112 

70.022 

70 

70.222 

52 

71.062 

52 

71.082 

48 

70 

69.942 

182 

70.002 

112 

70.002 

68 

70.282 

52 

70.922 

52 

71.082 

48 

70 

69.942 

182 

70.002 

112 

70.022 

70 

70.262 

52 

70.962 

52 

71.082 

48 

70 

69.942 

182 

70.002 

112 

70.022 

70 

70.282 

52 

71.002 

52 

71.062 

48 

70 

69.942 

182 

69.982 

112 

69.982 

70 

70.282 

52 

71.002 

52 

71.122 

48 

70 

69.922 

182 

69.962 

112 

69.982 

70 

70.302 

52 

70.982 

52 

71.042 

48 

70 

69.942 

182 

69.962 

112 

70.002 

70 

70.262 

52 

71.002 

52 

71.062 

48 

70 

69.922 

182 

70.002 

112 

70.022 

70 

70.302 

52 

71.002 

52 

71.102 

48 

70 

69.942 

182 

69.982 

112 

69.982 

68 

70.282 

52 

71.022 

52 

71.102 

48 

80 

79.937 

172 

79.972 

96 

79.932 

62 

79.992 

44 

79.997 

44 

79.957 

32 

80 

79.977 

172 

79.977 

96 

79.937 

62 

79.977 

44 

80.277 

40 

80.037 

34 

80 

79.972 

172 

79.997 

96 

79.952 

62 

79.997 

44 

80.057 

38 

80.097 

34 

80 

79.952 

172 

79.957 

96 

79.957 

62 

79.907 

44 

80.077 

40 

79.997 

32 

80 

79.957 

172 

79.992 

96 

79.932 

62 

80.077 

44 

79.977 

38 

80.137 

34 

80 

79.952 

172 

79.997 

96 

79.937 

62 

79.977 

44 

80.217 

40 

79.957 

32 

80 

79.957 

172 

79.977 

96 

79.957 

62 

80.017 

44 

80.057 

40 

79.957 

32 

80 

79.977 

172 

79.977 

96 

79.937 

62 

79.997 

44 

80.077 

40 

79.957 

32 

80 

79.977 

172 

79.957 

96 

79.932 

62 

80.017 

44 

79.997 

38 

80.017 

32 

80 

79.972 

172 

79.997 

96 

79.977 

62 

79.997 

44 

80.037 

40 

79.957 

32 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.997 

102 

89.957 

60 

90.017 

42 

90.037 

42 

91.057 

38 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.997 

102 

89.977 

60 

90.057 

42 

90.597 

42 

91.117 

38 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.977 

102 

89.977 

60 

89.977 

42 

90.537 

38 

91.017 

38 

90 

89.897 

174 

89.977 

102 

89.977 

60 

89.997 

42 

90.537 

42 

91.057 

38 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.997 

102 

89.957 

60 

90.037 

42 

90.217 

38 

90.977 

38 

90 

89.917 

174 

89.977 

102 

89.957 

60 

90.057 

42 

90.577 

42 

91.057 

36 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.977 

102 

89.937 

60 

89.997 

42 

89.977 

38 

91.017 

38 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.997 

102 

89.957 

60 

89.977 

42 

90.037 

38 

91.017 

38 

90 

89.937 

174 

89.957 

102 

89.937 

60 

90.017 

42 

90.017 

36 

91.017 

38 

90 

89.917 

174 

90.017 

102 

89.977 

60 

90.037 

42 

90.037 

38 

91.017 

38 

100 

99.937 

176 

99.997 

92 

100.137 

42 

100.117 

38 

99.997 

44 

100.797 

52 

100 

99.917 

172 

99.957 

90 

100.157 

42 

100.117 

38 

100.037 

44 

101.277 

52 

100 

99.937 

168 

99.957 

90 

100.217 

42 

100.137 

38 

100.157 

44 

100.077 

52 

100 

99.937 

170 

99.957 

90 

100.177 

42 

100.057 

38 

101.077 

44 

100.077 

52 

100 

99.917 

170 

99.997 

90 

100.177 

42 

100.097 

38 

100.057 

44 

101.717 

52 

100 

99.917 

170 

99.937 

90 

100.237 

42 

100.177 

40 

100.097 

44 

100.297 

52 

100 

99.917 

170 

99.957 

90 

100.197 

42 

100.097 

38 

100.117 

44 

101.517 

52 

100 

99.897 

170 

99.957 

90 

100.237 

42 

100.077 

38 

100.157 

44 

101.497 

52 

100 

99.917 

170 

99.977 

90 

100.237 

42 

100.137 

38 

100.077 

44 

101.417 

52 

100 

99.957 

170 

99.977 

90 

100.177 

42 

100.017 

40 

100.137 

46 

99.937 

52 


92 


Table B.5 Angie of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter File: rot_calib_ll_01_01.xls 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 



Silver, shiny 

Rotation Angle (°) 

Distance 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

10 

11.109 

102 

11.53 

74 

13.333 

72 

9.887 

50 

9.567 

74 

10 

11.169 

102 

11.53 

74 

13.353 

72 

9.867 

52 

9.567 

74 

10 

11.169 

102 

11.55 

74 

13.333 

72 

9.987 

52 

9.607 

74 

10 

11.129 

102 

11.55 

74 

13.333 

74 

9.847 

52 

9.607 

74 

10 

11.169 

102 

11.57 

74 

13.333 

72 

9.887 

52 

9.562 

74 

10 

11.109 

102 

11.55 

74 

13.373 

72 

9.907 

50 

9.587 

74 

10 

11.149 

102 

11.55 

74 

13.353 

72 

9.887 

50 

9.567 

74 

10 

11.169 

102 

11.53 

74 

13.313 

74 

9.887 

52 

9.607 

74 

10 

11.169 

102 

11.57 

74 

13.333 

72 

9.807 

50 

9.567 

74 

10 

11.129 

102 

11.55 

74 

13.313 

72 

9.867 

50 

9.607 

74 

20 

19.902 

66 

20.042 

48 

20.142 

56 

19.882 

60 

19.782 

76 

20 

19.902 

66 

20.062 

48 

20.182 

56 

19.862 

60 

19.962 

76 

20 

19.882 

66 

20.022 

48 

20.082 

58 

19.822 

58 

19.802 

78 

20 

19.882 

66 

20.042 

48 

20.162 

58 

19.842 

58 

19.822 

78 

20 

19.902 

64 

20.062 

48 

20.142 

58 

19.842 

60 

19.802 

78 

20 

19.902 

64 

20.082 

48 

20.142 

56 

19.882 

58 

19.802 

78 

20 

19.902 

66 

20.002 

48 

20.202 

58 

19.842 

60 

19.802 

78 

20 

19.922 

64 

20.042 

48 

20.082 

58 

19.842 

60 

19.762 

78 

20 

19.882 

66 

20.062 

48 

20.162 

56 

19.862 

60 

19.802 

78 

20 

19.902 

66 

20.062 

48 

20.142 

58 

19.882 

60 

19.782 

78 

30 

31.22 

66 

31.956 

56 

30.276 

62 

30.036 

58 

29.776 

68 

30 

31.24 

66 

31.96 

56 

30.136 

62 

29.976 

58 

29.796 

68 

30 

31.216 

66 

31.976 

56 

30.196 

62 

29.996 

58 

29.776 

68 

30 

31.216 

66 

31.976 

56 

30.056 

62 

30.056 

58 

29.756 

68 

30 

31.196 

66 

31.956 

56 

30.076 

62 

30.016 

58 

29.756 

68 

30 

31.176 

66 

31.956 

56 

30.176 

62 

29.896 

58 

29.836 

68 

30 

31.216 

66 

31.936 

56 

30.176 

62 

29.936 

58 

29.836 

68 

30 

31.196 

66 

31.976 

56 

30.096 

60 

29.956 

58 

29.796 

68 

30 

31.176 

66 

31.936 

56 

30.216 

62 

29.936 

58 

29.816 

68 

30 

31.196 

66 

31.916 

56 

30.156 

62 

29.896 

58 

29.816 

68 

40 

41.576 

52 

40.411 

42 

39.951 

50 

39.871 

54 

39.651 

64 

40 

41.576 

52 

40.596 

42 

39.851 

48 

39.951 

54 

39.711 

64 

40 

41.551 

52 

40.451 

42 

39.871 

50 

39.931 

54 

39.731 

64 

40 

41.571 

52 

40.651 

42 

39.911 

50 

39.951 

54 

39.691 

64 

40 

41.596 

52 

40.431 

42 

39.871 

48 

39.991 

54 

39.691 

64 

40 

41.591 

52 

40.371 

42 

39.971 

50 

39.831 

54 

39.651 

66 

40 

41.611 

52 

40.531 

42 

39.891 

48 

40.051 

54 

39.651 

64 

40 

41.556 

52 

40.491 

42 

39.891 

50 

39.971 

54 

39.691 

64 

40 

41.551 

52 

40.551 

42 

39.891 

50 

39.831 

54 

39.691 

64 

40 

41.551 

50 

40.531 

42 

39.911 

48 

39.811 

54 

39.671 

66 

50 

51.242 

48 

52.542 

78 

50.382 

52 

50.042 

54 

49.602 

74 

50 

50.962 

46 

51.742 

54 

51.022 

50 

49.982 

54 

109.317 

74 

50 

50.982 

46 

51.742 

52 

50.722 

50 

50.002 

54 

109.317 

74 

50 

50.982 

46 

51.722 

54 

51.642 

50 

50.062 

54 

109.337 

74 

50 

51.022 

48 

51.737 

54 

50.982 

52 

49.842 

88 

109.322 

74 

50 

51.022 

48 

51.762 

54 

50.862 

52 

50.157 

56 

109.282 

74 

50 

50.962 

46 

51.722 

54 

50.902 

52 

50.162 

54 

109.322 

74 

50 

50.982 

46 

51.722 

54 

50.822 

52 

50.022 

54 

109.342 

74 

50 

50.982 

48 

51.722 

54 

50.742 

52 

50.077 

54 

49.722 

74 

50 

50.982 

48 

51.722 

54 

50.322 

52 

50.022 

54 

109.297 

74 

60 

60.845 

64 

60.96 

48 

62.6 

66 

59.736 

68 

59.636 

74 

60 

60.86 

64 

61 

48 

62.56 

66 

59.816 

68 

59.596 

74 

60 

60.86 

64 

60.98 

48 

62.576 

66 

59.796 

68 

59.656 

74 

60 

60.9 

64 

60.92 

48 

62.54 

66 

59.796 

68 

59.616 

74 

60 

60.885 

64 

61.02 

48 

62.52 

66 

59.876 

68 

59.536 

74 

60 

60.88 

64 

61.02 

48 

62.516 

66 

59.916 

68 

59.616 

74 

60 

60.88 

64 

60.92 

48 

62.52 

66 

59.916 

68 

59.536 

74 


93 


Table B.5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 






File: rot_calib_ 

1 l_01_01.xls j 






Silver, shiny 
Rotation Angle (°) 




11 

Distance 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

60 

60.86 

64 

60.96 

48 

62.576 

66 

59.996 

68 

59.636 

74 1 

60 

60.86 

64 

61.02 

48 

62.556 

66 

59.956 

68 

59.636 

74 'J 

60 

60.84 

64 

61 

48 

62.476 

66 

59.676 

68 

59.596 

74 1 

70 

71.122 

42 

72.022 

54 

73.302 

62 

69.837 

66 

69.577 

70 

70 

71.122 

44 

71.882 

52 

73.402 

62 

90.457 

66 

69.717 

70 

70 

71.102 

44 

71.962 

54 

73.342 

62 

90.682 

66 

69.717 

70 1 

70 

71.162 

44 

71.902 

52 

73.422 

62 

90.697 

66 

69.757 

70 i 

70 

71.102 

44 

71.862 

52 

73.362 

62 

90.637 

66 

69.557 

70 1 

70 

71.142 

44 

71.922 

52 

73.277 

62 

90.437 

66 

69.697 

70 

70 

71.122 

44 

72.017 

52 

73.317 

62 

90.602 

66 

69.657 

72 

70 

71.022 

44 

72.042 

52 

73.317 

62 

90.477 

66 

69.697 

70 

70 

71.137 

44 

71.982 

52 

73.337 

62 

90.737 

66 

69.762 

70 

70 

71.122 

44 

71.902 

54 

73.377 

62 

90.577 

66 

69.677 

70 

80 

79.977 

40 

90.717 

64 

90.797 

66 

90.197 

68 

79.637 

74 

80 

80.057 

40 

90.897 

64 

90.877 

66 

90.272 

68 

79.617 

72 

80 

79.937 

40 

90.777 

64 

91.137 

66 

90.257 

68 

79.617 

74 

80 

79.997 

40 

90.597 

64 

90.772 

66 

90.257 

70 

79.492 

74 

80 

79.997 

40 

90.777 

64 

91.017 

66 

90.257 

68 

79.557 

74 

80 

79.997 

40 

109.957 

64 

90.727 

66 

90.312 

68 

79.953 

74 | 

80 

79.997 

40 

110.112 

62 

91.072 

66 

90.197 

68 

79.537 

74 ; 

80 

79.977 

40 

90.797 

64 

90.957 

66 

90.377 

70 

79.577 

74 

80 

79.992 

40 

90.817 

64 

90.977 

68 

90.377 

68 

79.577 

74 

80 

79.997 

40 

90.557 

64 

90.617 

66 

90.317 

68 

79.697 

74 

90 

91.197 

56 

109.117 

64 

94.397 

68 

97.237 

68 

89.657 

72 ! 

90 

91.917 

56 

109.137 

64 

94.457 

68 

97.117 

70 

89.777 

72 

90 

91.277 

56 

91.737 

64 

94.397 

68 

96.897 

70 

89.777 

72 

90 

91.177 

56 

109.117 

64 

94.397 

68 

97.277 

70 

89.717 

72 

90 

91.237 

56 

91.837 

64 

94.497 

68 

96.997 

70 

89.737 

72 

90 

91.297 

56 

109.137 

64 

94.417 

68 

97.157 

70 

89.637 

72 

90 

91.197 

56 

109.137 

64 

94.457 

68 

97.017 

70 

89.737 

72 

90 

91.217 

58 

91.197 

64 

94.597 

68 

97.057 

68 

89.737 

72 

90 

91.277 

56 

109.137 

64 

94.337 

68 

97.237 

70 

89.697 

72 j 

90 

91.237 

54 

91.697 

64 

94.477 

68 

97.237 

68 

89.757 

72 

100 

110.077 

64 

109.677 

66 

109.537 

70 

109.417 

70 

99.817 

76 

100 

110.037 

64 

109.657 

66 

109.537 

70 

109.417 

70 

99.597 

76 

100 

109.957 

64 

109.657 

66 

109.537 

68 

109.397 

70 

99.677 

76 J 

100 

110.017 

64 

109.697 

66 

109.537 

70 

109.377 

70 

99.737 

76 

100 

110.097 

64 

109.657 

66 

109.537 

70 

109.397 

70 

99.677 

76 f 

100 

110.037 

64 

109.577 

66 

109.477 

70 

109.377 

70 

99.617 

76 

100 

109.977 

64 

109.597 

66 

109.537 

70 

109.377 

70 

99.557 

76 

100 

102.777 

64 

109.657 

66 

109.557 

70 

109.397 

70 

99.697 

76 

100 

109.877 

64 

109.717 

66 

109.497 

70 

109.417 

70 

99.757 

76 

100 

109.997 

64 

109.657 

66 

109.517 

70 

109.397 

70 

99.677 

76 


94 


Table B.5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter File: rot_calib_ll_01_01.xls 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 

White 


Rotation Angle ( 0 ) 


Distance 

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

10 

9.967 

150 

10.003 

150 

9.942 

148 

10.003 

148 

10.003 

144 

10.023 

142 

10 

9.982 

150 

10.008 

150 

9.982 

150 

10.003 

148 

9.982 

144 

10.003 

142 

10 

9.962 

150 

9.982 

150 

10.003 

148 

9.982 

148 

9.982 

144 

10.023 

142 

10 

10.003 

150 

9.962 

150 

9.982 

150 

9.982 

146 

9.982 

144 

10.003 

142 

10 

9.982 

150 

10.003 

150 

9.962 

148 

10.023 

148 

10.003 

144 

10.023 

142 

10 

9.962 

150 

9.982 

150 

10.003 

148 

10.003 

148 

10.003 

144 

9.982 

142 

10 

9.962 

150 

9.982 

150 

9.982 

148 

9.962 

146 

10.003 

144 

9.982 

142 

10 

9.982 

150 

9.942 

150 

9.982 

150 

10.003 

148 

9.962 

144 

10.023 

142 

10 

10.003 

150 

10.003 

150 

10.003 

148 

10.003 

148 

10.003 

144 

9.982 

142 

10 

9.967 

150 

9.942 

150 

9.962 

148 

9.962 

146 

10.003 

144 

9.982 

142 

20 

19.982 

150 

20.002 

150 

19.962 

148 

20.002 

146 

20.002 

144 

19.962 

140 

20 

19.982 

150 

19.962 

150 

19.982 

148 

19.982 

146 

19.962 

144 

19.962 

140 

20 

20.002 

150 

19.982 

150 

20.002 

148 

20.002 

146 

20.002 

144 

20.002 

140 

20 

19.962 

150 

20.002 

150 

20.002 

148 

20.022 

146 

19.962 

144 

20.002 

140 

20 

19.982 

150 

20.002 

150 

20.002 

148 

20.022 

146 

19.982 

144 

19.962 

140 

20 

20.002 

150 

19.962 

150 

20.002 

148 

20.002 

146 

19.982 

144 

19.982 

140 

20 

20.002 

150 

20.002 

150 

20.002 

148 

20.002 

146 

19.982 

144 

20.002 

140 

20 

19.982 

150 

20.002 

150 

20.002 

148 

20.002 

146 

20.002 

144 

19.982 

140 

20 

20.002 

150 

20.002 

150 

19.982 

148 

20.002 

146 

20.002 

144 

20.022 

140 

20 

19.962 

150 

20.002 

150 

19.962 

148 

20.002 

146 

19.962 

144 

20.002 

140 

30 

29.996 

138 

30.016 

138 

29.976 

136 

29.976 

134 

29.971 

130 

29.991 

126 

30 

29.976 

138 

29.976 

136 

29.996 

136 

30.016 

134 

29.951 

130 

29.991 

126 

30 

29.996 

138 

29.976 

136 

29.956 

136 

29.976 

134 

29.991 

130 

29.971 

126 

30 

30.016 

138 

29.976 

136 

29.976 

136 

29.996 

134 

29.991 

130 

30.011 

126 

30 

30.016 

138 

29.996 

136 

29.996 

136 

29.991 

134 

29.951 

130 

29.951 

126 

30 

29.976 

138 

29.996 

138 

29.996 

136 

29.976 

134 

29.991 

130 

29.971 

126 

30 

29.996 

138 

29.936 

136 

29.996 

136 

29.976 

134 

29.971 

130 

29.991 

126 

30 

29.996 

138 

29.976 

136 

29.996 

136 

30.011 

134 

29.971 

130 

29.971 

126 

30 

30.016 

138 

29.996 

136 

29.956 

136 

29.991 

134 

29.991 

130 

29.971 

126 

30 

29.976 

138 

29.976 

136 

29.956 

136 

29.951 

134 

29.971 

130 

29.991 

126 

40 

39.971 

120 

40.011 

120 

39.991 

120 

39.986 

118 

39.966 

114 

39.966 

112 

40 

39.991 

122 

39.951 

120 

40.011 

120 

39.971 

118 

40.011 

116 

40.006 

112 

40 

39.991 

122 

39.991 

120 

40.006 

120 

39.971 

118 

40.006 

116 

39.986 

112 

40 

39.991 

122 

39.951 

120 

39.991 

120 

40.031 

118 

39.986 

116 

39.966 

112 

40 

40.011 

122 

39.971 

120 

39.991 

120 

39.986 

118 

39.986 

116 

39.986 

112 

40 

40.031 

122 

39.951 

120 

39.991 

120 

39.986 

118 

40.006 

116 

39.986 

112 

40 

39.971 

122 

40.011 

120 

39.971 

120 

39.986 

118 

39.986 

116 

40.006 

112 

40 

39.991 

122 

39.951 

120 

40.011 

120 

39.951 

118 

40.006 

116 

40.006 

112 

40 

40.011 

122 

39.971 

120 

39.991 

120 

39.971 

118 

40.006 

116 

40.006 

112 

40 

39.991 

122 

39.991 

120 

39.946 

120 

39.966 

118 

40.006 

116 

39.966 

112 

50 

49.977 

108 

50.017 

108 

49.977 

108 

50.037 

106 

49.997 

102 

50.017 

98 

50 

49.977 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.017 

106 

49.977 

102 

49.997 

100 

50 

49.977 

108 

49.997 

108 

50.017 

108 

49.997 

106 

49.997 

102 

50.037 

100 

50 

49.957 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.017 

106 

49.997 

102 

50.017 

100 

50 

49.997 

108 

49.977 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.017 

106 

50.037 

104 

50.017 

98 

50 

49.977 

108 

50.017 

108 

49.997 

108 

50.017 

106 

50.017 

102 

49.997 

98 

50 

49.997 

108 

49.982 

108 

49.997 

108 

50.017 

106 

50.022 

104 

50.017 

100 

50 

49.997 

108 

49.997 

108 

49.977 

108 

50.017 

106 

49.977 

104 

50.037 

100 

50 

49.997 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.037 

108 

49.997 

106 

49.997 

102 

50.037 

100 

50 

49.977 

108 

50.017 

108 

50.017 

108 

49.977 

106 

50.017 

104 

49.997 

100 

60 

59.976 

100 

59.991 

100 

60.011 

98 

59.991 

96 

59.971 

94 

59.991 

90 

60 

59.996 

100 

59.991 

100 

60.011 

98 

59.991 

98 

59.931 

94 

59.971 

90 

60 

59.976 

100 

59.991 

100 

59.951 

98 

59.991 

96 

59.991 

94 

59.951 

90 

60 

60.011 

100 

59.971 

100 

60.011 

98 

59.951 

96 

59.971 

94 

59.991 

90 

60 

60.011 

100 

59.951 

100 

59.971 

98 

59.971 

98 

59.971 

94 

59.991 

90 

60 

59.991 

100 

59.991 

100 

59.991 

98 

59.991 

96 

59.991 

94 

60.011 

90 

60 

59.971 

100 

59.931 

100 

60.011 

98 

59.971 

96 

59.971 

94 

59.991 

90 


95 


Table B. 5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter File: rot_calib_ll_01_01.xls 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 


Distance 

(m) 

White 

Rotation Angle ( 0 ) 

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

60 

59.991 

100 

59.991 

100 

60.011 

98 

59.991 

96 

60.011 

94 

59.971 

90 

60 

59.971 

100 

60.011 

100 

59.991 

98 

60.011 

98 

60.011 

94 

59.971 

90 

60 

59.991 

100 

59.971 

100 

59.991 

98 

59.991 

96 

59.971 

94 

59.991 

90 

70 

69.677 

70 

69.957 

90 

69.977 

90 

69.977 

88 

69.997 

86 

69.977 

80 

70 

69.977 

90 

69.977 

90 

69.977 

90 

69.977 

88 

69.957 

84 

69.997 

80 

70 

69.957 

90 

69.957 

90 

69.977 

90 

69.977 

88 

69.957 

84 

69.977 

80 

70 

69.957 

90 

69.977 

90 

69.997 

90 

69.997 

88 

70.017 

84 

69.957 

80 

70 

69.957 

90 

69.957 

90 

69.997 

90 

69.997 

88 

69.957 

84 

69.997 

82 

70 

69.957 

90 

69.977 

90 

70.017 

90 

69.957 

88 

69.957 

84 

69.977 

80 

70 

69.977 

90 

69.997 

90 

69.997 

90 

69.997 

88 

69.977 

84 

69.957 

80 

70 

69.957 

90 

69.977 

90 

69.997 

90 

69.977 

88 

69.997 

84 

69.977 

80 

70 

69.997 

90 

69.957 

90 

69.997 

90 

69.977 

88 

69.977 

84 

69.997 

82 

70 

69.937 

90 

69.957 

90 

69.957 

90 

69.997 

88 

69.997 

84 

69.977 

80 

80 

79.997 

84 

79.992 

84 

79.992 

82 

79.972 

80 

79.972 

78 

79.937 

74 

80 

79.972 

84 

79.992 

84 

79.992 

82 

79.977 

80 

79.977 

78 

79.977 

76 

80 

79.977 

84 

79.972 

84 

79.972 

82 

79.972 

80 

79.977 

78 

79.952 

76 

80 

79.997 

84 

79.997 

84 

79.977 

82 

79.992 

80 

79.957 

78 

79.977 

74 

80 

79.997 

84 

79.997 

84 

79.972 

82 

79.977 

80 

79.952 

78 

79.977 

74 

80 

79.972 

84 

79.952 

84 

79.992 

82 

80.017 

80 

79.957 

78 

79.952 

74 

80 

79.957 

84 

79.972 

84 

79.992 

82 

79.977 

80 

79.952 

78 

79.932 

76 

80 

79.992 

84 

79.992 

84 

79.997 

82 

79.972 

80 

79.977 

78 

79.972 

74 

80 

79.992 

84 

79.992 

84 

80.012 

82 

79.997 

80 

79.957 

78 

79.972 

74 

80 

79.972 

84 

79.952 

84 

79.997 

82 

79.952 

80 

79.977 

78 

79.957 

74 

90 

89.957 

78 

89.997 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.957 

76 

89.957 

74 

89.957 

70 

90 

89.997 

78 

89.997 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.957 

76 

89.977 

74 

89.957 

70 

90 

89.957 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.957 

76 

89.937 

74 

89.937 

70 

90 

89.957 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

76 

89.957 

74 

89.957 

70 

90 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.977 

76 

89.957 

74 

89.957 

70 

90 

89.957 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.957 

76 

89.957 

74 

89.957 

70 

90 

89.977 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

76 

89.957 

74 

89.997 

70 

90 

89.997 

78 

89.957 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.957 

76 

89.937 

74 

89.937 

70 

90 

89.957 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

76 

89.957 

74 

89.957 

70 

90 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

78 

89.977 

76 

89.977 

76 

89.937 

74 

89.977 

70 

100 

99.937 

74 

99.957 

74 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

72 

99.917 

68 

99.837 

68 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

74 

99.917 

72 

99.937 

68 

99.817 

68 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

74 

99.917 

72 

99.937 

68 

99.797 

66 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.917 

74 

99.957 

72 

99.897 

68 

99.817 

68 

100 

99.937 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

74 

99.897 

72 

99.897 

68 

99.817 

68 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

74 

99.917 

72 

99.917 

68 

99.837 

66 

100 

99.937 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.957 

74 

99.917 

72 

99.897 

70 

99.817 

66 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.957 

74 

99.957 

74 

99.937 

72 

99.917 

68 

99.817 

68 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

74 

99.937 

72 

99.917 

68 

99.817 

66 

100 

99.957 

76 

99.937 

74 

99.917 

74 

99.937 

72 

99.917 

68 

99.817 

66 


96 


Table B.5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 





File: rot calib l 1_ 

01_01.xls 


White 


Rotation Angle ( 0 ) 

Distance 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

10 

9.962 

136 

9.962 

132 

9.982 

126 

10.023 

118 

9.762 

74 

10 

10.003 

136 

10.003 

132 

9.982 

126 

10.003 

118 

9.722 

74 

10 

9.962 

136 

10.003 

132 

10.003 

126 

10.023 

118 

9.762 

74 

10 

10.003 

136 

10.003 

132 

10.003 

126 

10.003 

118 

9.762 

74 

10 

10.003 

136 

9.962 

132 

10.023 

126 

10.023 

118 

9.682 

74 

10 

9.982 

136 

10.003 

132 

9.962 

126 

10.023 

118 

9.762 

74 

10 

10.023 

136 

10.023 

132 

10.003 

128 

10.023 

118 

9.742 

74 

10 

9.962 

136 

10.003 

132 

10.023 

128 

10.023 

118 

9.742 

74 

10 

9.982 

136 

10.003 

132 

10.003 

126 

10.023 

118 

9.742 

74 

10 

10.023 

138 

9.962 

132 

10.003 

128 

9.982 

118 

9.762 

74 

20 

19.982 

136 

20.002 

132 

20.042 

124 

20.022 

112 

19.802 

104 

20 

20.002 

136 

20.022 

132 

20.022 

124 

20.002 

112 

19.842 

104 

20 

20.002 

136 

19.982 

132 

20.022 

124 

20.022 

112 

19.802 

104 

20 

20.022 

136 

20.022 

132 

20.042 

124 

20.002 

112 

19.822 

104 

20 

20.002 

136 

20.022 

132 

20.042 

124 

19.982 

112 

19.842 

104 

20 

20.002 

136 

19.982 

132 

20.022 

124 

19.982 

112 

19.842 

104 

20 

20.022 

136 

19.982 

132 

20.002 

124 

20.002 

112 

19.822 

104 

20 

20.002 

136 

19.982 

132 

20.022 

124 

19.982 

112 

19.822 

102 

20 

20.002 

136 

20.042 

132 

20.042 

124 

20.002 

112 

19.802 

104 

20 

19.962 

136 

20.022 

132 

20.042 

124 

19.962 

112 

19.842 

104 

30 

29.971 

122 

29.991 

116 

29.971 

100 

30.071 

82 

29.751 

70 

30 

30.011 

122 

29.991 

116 

29.971 

100 

30.011 

82 

29.771 

70 

30 

29.991 

122 

29.991 

116 

29.911 

100 

30.071 

82 

29.751 

72 

30 

29.991 

122 

30.011 

116 

29.951 

100 

30.031 

82 

29.731 

70 

30 

30.011 

122 

29.991 

116 

29.911 

100 

30.051 

82 

29.751 

70 

30 

29.991 

122 

30.011 

116 

29.931 

100 

30.051 

82 

29.771 

70 

30 

29.991 

122 

29.991 

116 

29.951 

100 

30.051 

82 

29.771 

70 

30 

29.991 

122 

29.991 

116 

29.951 

100 

30.051 

82 

29.771 

72 

30 

30.011 

122 

30.011 

116 

29.931 

100 

30.051 

82 

29.811 

70 

30 

29.991 

122 

30.011 

116 

29.931 

100 

30.051 

82 

29.751 

70 

40 

40.006 

108 

39.966 

100 

39.966 

78 

39.986 

74 

39.846 

70 

40 

40.026 

108 

40.006 

100 

39.966 

80 

39.966 

74 

39.846 

70 

40 

40.006 

108 

39.966 

100 

39.946 

80 

39.966 

72 

39.826 

70 

40 

40.006 

108 

39.986 

100 

39.946 

78 

39.966 

74 

39.846 

70 

40 

40.026 

108 

40.006 

100 

39.966 

80 

39.966 

74 

39.846 

70 

40 

40.006 

108 

40.006 

100 

39.966 

80 

39.946 

74 

39.826 

70 

40 

40.006 

108 

40.006 

100 

39.966 

78 

39.966 

74 

39.846 

70 

40 

40.026 

108 

39.986 

100 

39.966 

78 

39.966 

72 

39.806 

70 

40 

39.966 

108 

40.006 

100 

39.966 

78 

39.966 

72 

39.866 

70 

40 

39.986 

108 

39.986 

100 

39.966 

78 

39.966 

74 

39.846 

70 

50 

50.037 

94 

49.977 

82 

49.977 

72 

50.037 

58 

49.697 

74 

50 

49.997 

94 

49.957 

82 

49.957 

72 

50.037 

58 

49.717 

74 

50 

49.977 

94 

49.977 

82 

49.957 

72 

50.057 

58 

49.897 

74 

50 

49.977 

94 

49.977 

82 

49.937 

72 

50.037 

58 

49.617 

74 

50 

49.997 

94 

49.977 

82 

49.957 

72 

50.077 

58 

49.797 

74 

50 

50.017 

94 

49.977 

82 

49.957 

72 

50.077 

58 

49.657 

74 

50 

49.977 

94 

49.997 

82 

49.917 

72 

50.017 

58 

49.777 

74 

50 

49.997 

94 

49.937 

82 

49.917 

72 

50.037 

58 

49.837 

74 

50 

49.997 

94 

49.957 

82 

49.957 

72 

50.037 

58 

49.797 

74 

50 

50.037 

94 

49.957 

82 

49.937 

72 

50.037 

58 

49.797 

74 

60 

59.991 

84 

59.986 

70 

59.926 

62 

59.866 

62 

59.646 

70 

60 

59.991 

84 

59.966 

70 

59.946 

60 

59.886 

62 

59.726 

70 

60 

59.971 

84 

59.946 

70 

59.966 

62 

59.926 

62 

59.726 

70 

60 

60.006 

84 

59.946 

70 

59.946 

62 

59.906 

62 

59.686 

70 

60 

59.966 

84 

59.906 

70 

59.946 

62 

59.886 

62 

59.726 

70 

60 

60.011 

84 

59.966 

70 

59.926 

62 

59.886 

64 

59.726 

70 

60 

60.006 

84 

59.926 

70 

59.946 

62 

59.886 

62 

59.746 

70 


97 


60 

60 

60 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

80 

80 

80 

80 

80 

80 

80 

80 

80 

80 

90 

90 

90 

90 

90 

90 

90 

90 

90 

90 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 


59.966 

84 

59.946 

70 

59.986 

62 

59.906 

62 

59.706 

70 

59.966 

84 

59.926 

70 

59.946 

62 

59.926 

62 

59.766 

70 

59.971 

84 

59.946 

70 

59.926 

62 

59.926 

62 

59.686 

70 

69.957 

76 

69.957 

60 

69.957 

58 

69.937 

60 

69.697 

70 

69.957 

76 

69.937 

60 

69.977 

58 

69.957 

60 

69.697 

70 

69.957 

76 

69.977 

60 

69.977 

58 

69.977 

60 

69.657 

70 

69.957 

76 

69.957 

60 

69.937 

58 

69.957 

60 

69.717 

70 

69.977 

76 

69.997 

60 

69.997 

58 

70.017 

60 

69.717 

70 

69.957 

76 

69.997 

60 

69.977 

58 

69.957 

60 

69.637 

70 

69.977 

76 

69.997 

60 

69.997 

58 

69.937 

60 

69.677 

70 

69.977 

76 

69.957 

60 

69.997 

58 

69.997 

60 

69.717 

70 

69.977 

76 

69.977 

60 

70.017 

58 

69.957 

60 

69.637 

70 

69.977 

76 

69.957 

60 

69.997 

58 

69.957 

60 

69.797 

70 

79.957 

66 

79.932 

60 

79.872 

62 

79.812 

66 

79.577 

72 

79.952 

66 

79.957 

58 

79.832 

64 

79.852 

66 

79.617 

72 

79.932 

66 

79.932 

60 

79.892 

62 

79.857 

66 

79.592 

72 

79.957 

66 

79.957 

60 

79.897 

62 

79.837 

66 

79.617 

72 

79.952 

66 

79.932 

60 

79.857 

62 

79.832 

66 

79.677 

72 

79.977 

66 

79.952 

58 

79.872 

62 

79.827 

66 

79.592 

72 

79.932 

66 

79.952 

58 

79.852 

62 

79.852 

66 

79.517 

72 

79.897 

66 

79.957 

60 

79.832 

62 

79.817 

66 

79.692 

72 

79.937 

66 

79.912 

60 

79.892 

62 

79.812 

66 

79.692 

72 

79.937 

66 

79.912 

58 

79.892 

62 

79.832 

66 

79.592 

72 

89.977 

58 

89.817 

64 

89.837 

66 

89.817 

68 

89.717 

72 

89.937 

58 

89.837 

66 

89.857 

66 

89.837 

70 

89.677 

72 

89.937 

58 

89.817 

66 

89.837 

68 

89.877 

68 

89.737 

72 

89.977 

58 

89.837 

66 

89.817 

66 

89.877 

68 

89.697 

74 

89.957 

58 

89.857 

64 

89.837 

66 

89.857 

68 

89.697 

72 

89.977 

58 

89.817 

66 

89.837 

66 

89.857 

68 

89.597 

74 

89.937 

58 

89.817 

66 

89.877 

68 

89.817 

68 

89.677 

72 

89.937 

58 

89.797 

66 

89.837 

68 

89.837 

68 

89.617 

72 

89.937 

58 

89.857 

64 

89.817 

68 

89.837 

68 

89.657 

72 

89.957 

58 

89.857 

64 

89.817 

68 

89.817 

68 

89.657 

74 

99.717 

72 

99.717 

74 

99.737 

74 

99.637 

76 

99.817 

74 

99.717 

72 

99.737 

74 

99.737 

74 

99.657 

76 

99.737 

74 

99.717 

72 

99.677 

74 

99.757 

76 

99.757 

76 

99.997 

74 

99.717 

72 

99.717 

74 

99.817 

74 

99.717 

76 

109.157 

74 

99.717 

72 

99.737 

74 

99.717 

76 

99.717 

76 

99.757 

74 

99.737 

72 

99.737 

74 

99.757 

74 

99.657 

76 

99.857 

74 

99.677 

72 

99.737 

74 

99.817 

76 

99.637 

76 

99.857 

74 

99.737 

72 

99.717 

74 

99.717 

74 

99.697 

76 

99.577 

74 

99.697 

72 

99.677 

74 

99.717 

76 

99.717 

76 

109.177 

74 

99.717 

72 

99.717 

74 

99.717 

74 

99.677 

76 

99.777 

74 


98 


Table B.5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5 

, and 28, 2001 







File: rot 

_calib_l 1_ 

01_01.xls 


Black 


Rotation Angle ( ° ) 

Distance 

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

10 

10.023 

76 

9.962 

74 

10.003 

68 

10.023 

60 

10.003 

48 

10.023 

42 

10 

10.003 

76 

10.003 

74 

10.003 

68 

10.023 

58 

10.003 

48 

10.003 

42 

10 

9.962 

76 

10.003 

74 

9.982 

68 

10.003 

58 

10.043 

48 

10.043 

42 

10 

10.023 

78 

10.003 

74 

9.982 

68 

9.982 

60 

10.063 

48 

10.023 

42 

10 

10.003 

76 

10.003 

74 

9.982 

68 

9.982 

60 

10.043 

48 

10.063 

42 

10 

9.962 

76 

9.982 

74 

10.003 

68 

10.003 

60 

10.063 

48 

10.023 

42 

10 

10.003 

78 

9.962 

74 

10.003 

68 

10.003 

60 

10.023 

48 

9.942 

42 

10 

10.023 

78 

9.962 

74 

9.982 

68 

10.023 

60 

10.023 

48 

10.043 

42 

10 

10.003 

78 

10.003 

74 

10.003 

68 

10.023 

60 

10.003 

48 

10.003 

42 

10 

10.003 

76 

9.962 

74 

10.003 

68 

9.962 

60 

10.023 

48 

9.982 

42 

20 

19.982 

78 

20.022 

76 

19.982 

70 

20.002 

62 

20.062 

52 

20.042 

44 

20 

19.982 

78 

20.002 

76 

19.962 

70 

20.002 

62 

20.002 

52 

20.042 

46 

20 

19.982 

78 

20.002 

76 

19.962 

70 

19.982 

62 

20.022 

50 

20.002 

44 

20 

19.982 

78 

19.982 

76 

20.022 

70 

20.002 

62 

20.002 

50 

19.982 

44 

20 

20.002 

78 

20.002 

76 

20.002 

70 

20.002 

60 

20.002 

50 

20.042 

44 

20 

19.982 

78 

19.982 

76 

19.982 

70 

19.982 

60 

19.982 

52 

20.002 

44 

20 

20.002 

78 

19.962 

76 

19.982 

70 

20.002 

60 

20.042 

52 

19.982 

44 

20 

19.982 

78 

20.002 

76 

20.002 

70 

20.022 

62 

20.002 

52 

20.022 

44 

20 

20.002 

78 

19.962 

76 

19.962 

70 

20.002 

60 

19.962 

50 

19.982 

44 

20 

20.002 

78 

20.002 

76 

20.002 

70 

20.022 

60 

20.022 

52 

20.022 

44 

30 

29.991 

68 

29.971 

66 

30.031 

58 

30.011 

48 

30.011 

40 

30.031 

36 

30 

29.971 

68 

29.991 

66 

29.971 

58 

29.971 

48 

30.051 

42 

29.991 

36 

30 

29.991 

68 

29.971 

66 

29.991 

58 

30.011 

48 

30.031 

42 

30.011 

36 

30 

29.951 

68 

29.951 

66 

29.991 

58 

29.971 

48 

29.971 

40 

29.971 

36 

30 

29.991 

68 

29.951 

66 

30.011 

58 

29.991 

48 

29.946 

40 

30.031 

36 

30 

29.991 

68 

29.931 

66 

29.991 

58 

30.011 

48 

29.991 

42 

29.986 

36 

30 

29.971 

68 

29.951 

66 

29.991 

58 

30.011 

48 

29.991 

40 

29.991 

36 

30 

29.971 

68 

29.971 

66 

29.971 

58 

30.011 

48 

30.011 

40 

30.031 

36 

30 

29.971 

68 

29.931 

66 

29.971 

58 

30.031 

48 

30.011 

40 

29.986 

36 

30 

29.991 

68 

29.971 

66 

29.991 

58 

29.991 

48 

30.031 

40 

30.046 

36 

40 

40.026 

58 

39.966 

56 

39.986 

50 

39.966 

42 

39.966 

34 

40.066 

30 

40 

40.026 

58 

39.966 

56 

40.026 

50 

40.006 

42 

40.026 

34 

39.946 

28 

40 

39.986 

58 

40.026 

56 

39.986 

50 

39.966 

42 

39.966 

34 

39.946 

30 

40 

40.026 

58 

39.986 

56 

40.026 

50 

40.006 

42 

40.006 

34 

39.966 

30 

40 

39.966 

58 

39.986 

56 

40.066 

50 

40.006 

42 

40.026 

34 

40.006 

30 

40 

39.946 

58 

39.986 

56 

40.006 

50 

40.006 

42 

40.046 

34 

39.926 

30 

40 

39.966 

58 

40.006 

56 

40.026 

50 

39.986 

42 

40.006 

34 

40.006 

30 

40 

40.006 

58 

40.006 

56 

40.006 

50 

40.006 

42 

40.046 

34 

39.986 

30 

40 

39.986 

58 

39.966 

56 

39.986 

50 

39.986 

42 

40.006 

34 

40.046 

30 

40 

39.986 

58 

40.006 

56 

39.966 

50 

40.006 

42 

39.986 

34 

40.006 

30 

50 

49.997 

50 

49.977 

48 

49.997 

44 

49.997 

36 

49.977 

30 

49.997 

24 

50 

49.997 

48 

49.997 

48 

50.017 

42 

49.977 

36 

49.997 

28 

49.957 

24 

50 

49.997 

48 

50.017 

48 

49.997 

44 

50.017 

36 

50.037 

28 

49.997 

22 

50 

50.017 

50 

49.977 

48 

50.017 

42 

50.057 

36 

49.977 

28 

49.977 

24 

50 

49.997 

50 

49.977 

48 

50.017 

44 

50.017 

36 

49.977 

30 

49.937 

22 

50 

49.977 

50 

50.017 

48 

49.997 

44 

50.077 

36 

50.017 

30 

50.077 

24 

50 

49.997 

48 

49.957 

48 

50.017 

44 

49.997 

36 

49.997 

28 

49.997 

24 

50 

49.937 

48 

50.037 

48 

50.017 

44 

50.037 

36 

50.077 

30 

49.937 

22 

50 

49.977 

50 

49.997 

48 

49.997 

44 

50.017 

36 

50.077 

30 

50.117 

24 

50 

49.977 

50 

50.057 

48 

50.017 

44 

50.017 

36 

50.017 

28 

49.997 

24 

60 

59.926 

44 

60.006 

42 

60.026 

38 

59.942 

32 

59.962 

24 

59.942 

18 

60 

59.966 

44 

59.926 

42 

59.966 

38 

59.982 

32 

59.942 

26 

60.042 

20 

60 

59.986 

46 

59.986 

42 

59.982 

38 

59.982 

32 

59.962 

24 

60.062 

20 

60 

60.006 

44 

59.986 

44 

60.002 

38 

60.022 

32 

59.962 

26 

60.042 

22 

60 

59.986 

44 

60.022 

42 

59.986 

38 

60.042 

32 

60.062 

24 

60.022 

20 

60 

59.906 

44 

59.966 

42 

59.902 

38 

60.022 

32 

59.942 

26 

60.082 

20 

60 

60.006 

46 

60.006 

42 

59.962 

38 

60.022 

30 

59.982 

26 

60.102 

20 


99 


Table B.5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


II 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5 

, and 28, 2001 







File: rot 

_calib_ll_01_01.xls 


Black 


Rotation Angle ( ° ) 

Distance 

0 

10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

60 

59.966 

44 

60.006 

42 

59.942 

38 

59.962 

32 

59.982 

26 

60.062 

18 

60 

60.026 

44 

59.962 

42 

59.982 

38 

60.062 

32 

60.042 

24 

59.962 

20 

60 

60.006 

44 

59.966 

42 

60.002 

38 

59.942 

32 

59.902 

26 

59.922 

18 

70 

69.957 

40 

70.017 

38 

70.037 

32 

69.977 

26 

69.937 

20 

70.057 

14 

70 

69.977 

40 

69.997 

38 

70.017 

32 

69.977 

26 

70.077 

20 

69.937 

14 

70 

69.977 

38 

69.997 

36 

69.997 

32 

69.937 

26 

69.937 

20 

69.897 

18 

70 

70.017 

40 

70.017 

38 

69.997 

32 

69.987 

26 

69.997 

20 

70.237 

14 

70 

69.997 

40 

69.997 

36 

69.997 

32 

69.937 

26 

69.897 

20 

70.137 

16 

70 

69.977 

38 

69.937 

38 

69.977 

34 

69.917 

26 

69.937 

20 

69.957 

16 

70 

70.017 

40 

69.917 

38 

69.957 

32 

70.057 

26 

70.037 

22 

69.977 

14 

70 

69.997 

40 

69.937 

38 

69.977 

32 

70.017 

26 

69.897 

20 

70.077 

16 

70 

69.977 

38 

69.957 

38 

69.937 

32 

69.937 

26 

69.917 

20 

69.917 

16 

70 

69.997 

40 

69.997 

36 

69.937 

32 

70.077 

26 

69.957 

18 

69.997 

16 

80 

79.992 

36 

79.017 

34 

79.932 

30 

79.997 

22 

79.837 

16 

80.017 

24 

80 

79.997 

36 

79.972 

34 

79.932 

30 

79.987 

22 

79.957 

16 

110.057 

24 

80 

79.997 

36 

79.957 

34 

80.017 

30 

80.037 

24 

80.017 

16 

109.857 

22 

80 

79.997 

36 

79.972 

34 

80.017 

30 

79.937 

22 

79.972 

16 

80.137 

20 

80 

80.012 

36 

79.997 

34 

80.032 

30 

79.832 

22 

80.037 

14 

80.112 

22 

80 

80.017 

36 

80.012 

34 

79.977 

30 

80.037 

22 

80.037 

16 

109.817 

24 

80 

80.017 

36 

79.972 

36 

79.997 

28 

80.012 

22 

79.917 

16 

110.077 

22 

80 

79.997 

36 

79.997 

34 

79.977 

28 

79.997 

22 

80.117 

16 

110.037 

22 

80 

79.977 

36 

79.997 

34 

79.932 

30 

79.997 

22 

80.017 

16 

79.997 

24 

80 

79.952 

36 

79.977 

34 

79.977 

28 

79.957 

22 

80.237 

16 

80.177 

24 

90 

89.977 

34 

89.977 

32 

89.957 

26 

89.937 

20 

90.097 

24 

109.297 

32 

90 

89.977 

34 

89.977 

32 

89.977 

28 

89.977 

20 

89.977 

24 

109.337 

32 

90 

90.037 

34 

89.977 

32 

89.997 

28 

90.017 

20 

90.097 

24 

109.317 

32 

90 

89.997 

34 

89.997 

32 

89.897 

28 

89.957 

20 

90.157 

24 

109.377 

32 

90 

89.977 

34 

89.957 

32 

89.857 

28 

89.977 

20 

90.097 

24 

109.317 

32 

90 

89.997 

34 

90.057 

32 

90.057 

28 

89.897 

20 

90.137 

24 

109.257 

32 

90 

89.957 

34 

89.977 

32 

89.937 

28 

90.017 

20 

90.177 

24 

109.437 

32 

90 

89.977 

34 

89.957 

32 

90.037 

28 

90.017 

20 

90.077 

24 

109.277 

32 

90 

89.917 

34 

89.957 

32 

89.997 

28 

89.897 

20 

90.017 

24 

109.397 

32 

90 

90.017 

34 

89.977 

32 

89.997 

26 

90.037 

20 

90.077 

22 

109.397 

32 

100 

100.017 

32 

100.037 

30 

99.997 

30 

99.997 

30 

100.137 

32 

109.257 

46 

100 

99.917 

32 

100.037 

30 

100.057 

30 

100.077 

30 

100.197 

32 

109.277 

44 

100 

99.997 

32 

100.017 

30 

99.917 

30 

100.097 

30 

100.157 

32 

109.237 

46 

100 

99.957 

32 

99.957 

32 

100.057 

30 

99.977 

30 

100.137 

32 

109.257 

46 

100 

99.977 

32 

99.997 

32 

99.977 

30 

99.917 

30 

100.317 

32 

109.317 

44 

100 

99.997 

32 

99.937 

32 

99.937 

30 

99.997 

30 

109.217 

32 

109.257 

44 

100 

99.997 

32 

100.017 

32 

100.017 

30 

99.997 

30 

100.237 

32 

109.237 

46 

100 

99.917 

32 

99.917 

32 

99.937 

30 

100.057 

30 

100.117 

32 

109.277 

44 

100 

100.057 

32 

99.937 

32 

100.097 

30 

100.017 

30 

100.317 

32 

109.277 

44 

100 

99.937 

32 

99.957 

32 

99.997 

30 

99.977 

30 

100.137 

32 

109.277 

| 44 


100 


Table B.5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 






File: 

rot_calib_l 1 

_01_01.xls 


Black 


Rotation Angle ( 0 ) 

Distance 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

In ten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

10 

10.063 

38 

10.063 

38 

10.063 

36 

10.003 

42 

9.702 

76 

10 

10.083 

38 

10.023 

38 

10.063 

38 

10.003 

42 

9.622 

76 

10 

10.063 

38 

10.023 

36 

10.063 

38 

10.003 

42 

9.702 

76 

10 

10.023 

38 

10.043 

38 

10.043 

38 

10.023 

42 

9.582 

76 

10 

10.003 

38 

10.043 

38 

10.083 

38 

9.942 

42 

9.742 

76 

10 

10.043 

38 

10.023 

38 

10.063 

38 

10.043 

42 

9.642 

76 

10 

10.043 

38 

9.962 

38 

10.043 

38 

10.023 

42 

9.762 

76 

10 

10.023 

38 

10.003 

38 

10.103 

38 

10.023 

42 

9.722 

76 

10 

10.023 

38 

10.023 

38 

10.023 

38 

10.063 

42 

9.642 

76 

10 

10.083 

38 

10.043 

38 

10.023 

38 

9.982 

42 

9.722 

76 

20 

20.002 

42 

20.022 

40 

20.062 

42 

20.022 

52 

19.702 

70 

20 

19.962 

42 

20.042 

40 

20.082 

42 

20.002 

52 

19.642 

70 

20 

20.042 

42 

20.062 

40 

20.062 

42 

20.042 

52 

19.662 

70 

20 

20.022 

42 

20.022 

40 

20.082 

42 

20.022 

52 

19.682 

70 

20 

20.042 

42 

20.062 

40 

20.042 

42 

20.022 

52 

19.662 

70 

20 

19.982 

42 

20.002 

40 

20.042 

42 

20.002 

52 

19.622 

70 

20 

20.062 

42 

20.022 

40 

20.022 

42 

19.982 

52 

19.682 

70 

20 

20.022 

42 

20.062 

40 

20.002 

42 

19.982 

52 

19.682 

70 

20 

20.002 

42 

20.022 

42 

20.062 

42 

19.982 

52 

19.662 

70 

20 

20.042 

42 

20.022 

40 

20.102 

42 

20.042 

52 

19.702 

70 

30 

30.011 

34 

29.946 

34 

30.006 

50 

30.046 

58 

29.886 

66 

30 

30.071 

34 

30.011 

34 

29.966 

50 

30.046 

58 

29.886 

66 

30 

30.011 

34 

30.015 

34 

29.966 

52 

30.046 

58 

29.886 

66 

30 

30.011 

34 

30.026 

34 

29.966 

50 

30.086 

58 

29.886 

66 

30 

30.026 

34 

29.966 

34 

29.986 

50 

30.106 

58 

29.886 

66 

30 

30.051 

34 

30.011 

34 

29.986 

50 

30.066 

58 

29.886 

66 

30 

30.026 

34 

30.026 

34 

30.026 

50 

30.091 

56 

29.906 

66 

30 

30.031 

34 

30.111 

34 

30.006 

50 

30.066 

58 

29.906 

66 

30 

29.991 

34 

29.971 

34 

29.946 

52 

30.146 

58 

29.946 

66 

30 

29.966 

34 

30.006 

34 

29.986 

50 

30.126 

58 

29.866 

66 

40 

40.046 

28 

39.986 

26 

40.086 

52 

40.002 

54 

39.842 

68 

40 

39.946 

26 

39.966 

26 

40.146 

50 

40.042 

54 

39.802 

68 

40 

39.946 

26 

40.106 

26 

40.006 

50 

40.106 

54 

39.782 

68 

40 

40.006 

28 

39.966 

26 

40.146 

50 

40.082 

54 

39.762 

68 

40 

39.966 

26 

39.926 

26 

40.062 

50 

40.182 

54 

39.862 

68 

40 

39.966 

26 

40.006 

26 

40.022 

50 

40.162 

54 

39.762 

68 

40 

40.006 

26 

40.102 

26 

40.066 

50 

40.142 

54 

39.762 

68 

40 

40.086 

26 

40.046 

26 

39.982 

50 

40.062 

54 

39.742 

70 

40 

40.006 

26 

39.986 

26 

39.966 

52 

40.142 

54 

39.722 

68 

40 

39.946 

26 

40.046 

26 

40.062 

52 

40.042 

54 

39.842 

68 

50 

50.077 

22 

50.197 

50 

50.237 

54 

109.377 

60 

109.337 

74 

50 

50.157 

22 

50.177 

50 

50.157 

54 

50.317 

60 

109.337 

74 

50 

50.057 

20 

50.157 

50 

50.037 

54 

50.137 

60 

109.337 

74 

50 

49.877 

22 

50.257 

50 

50.057 

54 

50.077 

60 

109.377 

74 

50 

50.037 

22 

49.977 

52 

50.297 

54 

50.237 

60 

109.317 

74 

50 

50.017 

22 

50.137 

50 

50.117 

54 

50.077 

60 

109.277 

74 

50 

50.077 

20 

50.137 

50 

50.317 

54 

50.317 

60 

109.337 

74 

50 

50.057 

22 

50.237 

50 

50.317 

54 

50.257 

60 

109.317 

74 

50 

50.117 

22 

50.217 

50 

50.197 

54 

50.337 

60 

109.317 

74 

50 

50.077 

22 

50.077 

50 

50.177 

54 

50.197 

60 

109.337 

74 

60 

60.062 

22 

60.082 

48 

109.982 

66 

60.142 

68 

59.902 

74 

60 

60.002 

22 

60.342 

48 

110.042 

64 

59.922 

68 

59.642 

74 

60 

60.042 

22 

60.362 

48 

110.022 

66 

109.762 

68 

59.662 

74 

60 

60.122 

22 

60.222 

48 

109.922 

66 

60.102 

68 

59.962 

74 

60 

60.022 

22 

60.282 

48 

110.022 

66 

60.162 

68 

60.042 

74 

60 

60.142 

22 

60.182 

48 

109.962 

64 

59.902 

68 

59.782 

74 

60 

60.022 

22 

60.162 

48 

110.022 

66 

60.122 

68 

59.702 

74 


101 


Table B. 5 Angle of Laser Incidence: 10 m to 100 m 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

No Filter 

Test Dates: Nov. 1, 5, and 28, 2001 






File: 

rot_calib_l 1 

_01_01.xls 


Black 


Rotation Angle ( ° ) 

Distance 

60 

70 

80 

85 

90 

(m) 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

Dist. (m) 

Inten. 

60 

60.082 

22 

60.062 

48 

109.962 

66 

60.182 

68 

59.622 

74 

60 

60.002 

20 

60.222 

48 

109.962 

64 

60.102 

68 

59.762 

74 

60 

60.042 

22 

60.142 

48 

110.122 

66 

60.402 

68 

59.962 

74 

70 

70.037 

26 

109.357 

52 

109.217 

62 

109.177 

64 

109.137 

70 

70 

70.157 

26 

109.377 

52 

109.237 

64 

109.157 

64 

109.137 

72 

70 

70.177 

26 

109.397 

52 

109.217 

64 

109.177 

64 

109.137 

70 

70 

70.097 

26 

109.357 

52 

109.197 

62 

109.177 

64 

109.137 

72 

70 

69.977 

26 

109.417 

54 

109.197 

62 

109.197 

64 

109.177 

72 

70 

70.137 

26 

109.377 

54 

109.217 

62 

109.217 

64 

109.157 

70 

70 

70.277 

26 

109.397 

52 

109.217 

62 

109.197 

64 

109.137 

70 

70 

70.117 

26 

109.397 

52 

109.237 

62 

109.177 

64 

109.137 

70 

70 

70.157 

26 

109.337 

52 

109.197 

62 

109.177 

64 

109.117 

70 

70 

70.057 

26 

109.377 

52 

109.197 

62 

109.197 

64 

109.137 

70 

80 

111.612 

40 

109.977 

64 

109.652 

66 

109.557 

68 

109.277 

74 

80 

111.812 

40 

109.972 

64 

109.792 

66 

109.497 

68 

109.312 

72 

80 

80.177 

40 

110.097 

62 

109.672 

66 

109.622 

68 

109.312 

74 

80 

111.732 

40 

109.952 

62 

109.697 

66 

109.532 

68 

109.312 

72 

80 

111.832 

40 

110.032 

62 

109.692 

66 

109.577 

68 

109.332 

72 

80 

111.837 

38 

109.912 

64 

109.652 

66 

109.612 

68 

109.292 

74 

80 

111.972 

40 

110.012 

62 

109.732 

66 

109.572 

68 

109.312 

72 

80 

111.832 

40 

109.912 

62 

109.732 

66 

109.512 

68 

109.312 

74 

80 

111.852 

40 

109.152 

62 

109.6923 

66 

109.572 

68 

109.272 

72 

80 

111.637 

40 

109.992 

62 

109.697 

66 

109.572 

68 

109.312 

74 

90 

109.277 

52 

109.157 

64 

109.137 

64 

109.177 

68 

109.137 

72 

90 

109.317 

52 

109.137 

62 

109.077 

66 

109.117 

68 

109.117 

72 

90 

109.297 

52 

109.157 

64 

109.117 

66 

109.097 

68 

109.097 

74 

90 

109.277 

52 

109.157 

62 

109.137 

66 

109.097 

68 

109.117 

74 

90 

109.297 

54 

109.177 

62 

109.157 

66 

109.097 

68 

109.097 

72 

90 

109.277 

52 

109.117 

62 

109.097 

66 

109.137 

66 

109.117 

72 

90 

109.257 

52 

109.177 

62 

109.137 

66 

109.117 

68 

109.097 

74 

90 

109.277 

52 

109.157 

62 

109.117 

66 

109.137 

68 

109.117 

72 

90 

109.217 

52 

109.157 

62 

109.097 

66 

109.117 

68 

109.137 

72 

90 

109.277 

54 

109.197 

62 

109.077 

66 

109.117 

68 

109.097 

72 

100 

110.257 

62 

109.637 

66 

109.457 

68 

109.317 

70 

109.217 

74 

100 

110.197 

64 

109.637 

66 

109.457 

68 

109.337 

70 

109.237 

74 

100 

110.177 

62 

109.737 

66 

109.497 

68 

109.417 

70 

109.237 

74 

100 

110.257 

62 

109.737 

66 

109.437 

68 

109.397 

70 

109.257 

74 

100 

110.177 

62 

109.617 

66 

109.457 

68 

109.357 

70 

109.257 

74 

100 

110.217 

62 

109.637 

66 

109.457 

68 

109.357 

70 

109.217 

74 

100 

110.137 

62 

109.597 

66 

109.497 

68 

109.357 

70 

109.257 

74 

100 

110.177 

62 

109.557 

66 

109.417 

68 

109.317 

70 

109.277 

74 

100 

110.277 

62 

109.677 

66 

109.457 

68 

109.397 

70 

109.237 

74 

100 

110.257 

62 

109.677 

66 

109.457 

68 

109.357 

70 

109.217 

74 


Table B.6a. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 






File: dataset7_covariance_10m_045.xls 

Test date: Sept. 03, 2002 








Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

t(°) 

OD 

Range (m) 

<*(") 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<K°) 

0(°) 

9.999 

89.46 

39.6 

9.999 

89.46 

39.645 

9.958 

89.46 

39.69 

9.999 

89.46 

39.6 

10.019 

89.46 

39.645 

9.958 

89.46 

39.69 


102 


Table B. 6a. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 03, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_045.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

H°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

*r) 

or) 

10.019 

89.46 

39.6 

9.978 

89.46 

39.645 

10.019 

89.46 

39.69 

9.978 

89.46 

39.6 

10.039 

89.46 

39.645 

10.019 

89.46 

39.69 

10.019 

89.46 

39.6 

9.958 

89.46 

39.645 

9.978 

89.46 

39.69 

9.995 

89.46 

39.6 

9.999 

89.46 

39.645 

10.019 

89.46 

39.69 

9.954 

89.46 

39.6 

9.974 

89.46 

39.645 

10.019 

89.46 

39.69 

10.015 

89.46 

39.6 

9.995 

89.46 

39.645 

10.039 

89.46 

39.69 

9.974 

89.46 

39.6 

9.974 

89.46 

39.645 

9.978 

89.46 

39.69 

9.954 

89.46 

39.6 

9.974 

89.46 

39.645 

10.019 

89.46 

39.69 

10.019 

89.505 

39.6 

9.978 

89.505 

39.645 

9.999 

89.505 

39.69 

9.999 

89.505 

39.6 

9.999 

89.505 

39.645 

9.958 

89.505 

39.69 

9.978 

89.505 

39.6 

9.999 

89.505 

39.645 

9.958 

89.505 

39.69 

9.999 

89.505 

39.6 

10.039 

89.505 

39.645 

9.978 

89.505 

39.69 

9.958 

89.505 

39.6 

9.978 

89.505 

39.645 

10.019 

89.505 

39.69 

10.019 

89.505 

39.6 

10.019 

89.505 

39.645 

10.019 

89.505 

39.69 

9.999 

89.505 

39.6 

9.999 

89.505 

39.645 

9.978 

89.505 

39.69 

9.958 

89.505 

39.6 

9.999 

89.505 

39.645 

9.999 

89.505 

39.69 

10.019 

89.505 

39.6 

9.978 

89.505 

39.645 

9.999 

89.505 

39.69 

9.999 

89.505 

39.6 

9.978 

89.505 

39.645 

9.978 

89.505 

39.69 

9.999 

89.55 

39.6 

10.039 

89.55 

39.645 

10.019 

89.55 

39.69 

10.019 

89.55 

39.6 

9.999 

89.55 

39.645 

10.019 

89.55 

39.69 

9.999 

89.55 

39.6 

9.999 

89.55 

39.645 

9.999 

89.55 

39.69 

10.019 

89.55 

39.6 

10.019 

89.55 

39.645 

9.978 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

9.999 

89.55 

39.645 

10.019 

89.55 

39.69 

9.995 

89.55 

39.6 

9.999 

89.55 

39.645 

9.974 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

10.015 

89.55 

39.645 

9.995 

89.55 

39.69 

9.995 

89.55 

39.6 

10.015 

89.55 

39.645 

10.015 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

10.015 

89.55 

39.645 

10.015 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

10.015 

89.55 

39.645 

10.015 

89.55 

39.69 

9.958 

89.595 

39.6 

10.019 

89.595 

39.645 

10.019 

89.595 

39.699 

9.999 

89.595 

39.6 

9.958 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.699 

9.978 

89.595 

39.6 

9.999 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.69 

9.978 

89.595 

39.6 

9.958 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.69 

9.978 

89.595 

39.6 

9.999 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.69 

10.039 

89.595 

39.6 

10.019 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.69 

9.999 

89.595 

39.6 

9.999 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.69 

9.978 

89.595 

39.6 

9.978 

89.595 

39.645 

10.039 

89.595 

39.69 

10.019 

89.595 

39.6 

9.978 

89.595 

39.645 

9.978 

89.595 

39.69 

9.999 

89.595 

39.6 

9.999 

89.595 

39.645 

9.999 

89.595 

39.69 

9.978 

89.64 

39.6 

9.978 

89.64 

39.645 

9.958 

89.64 

39.699 

10.039 

89.64 

39.6 

9.999 

89.64 

39.645 

9.978 

89.64 

39.699 

9.999 

89.64 

39.6 

10.019 

89.64 

39.645 

10.039 

89.64 

39.699 

10.019 

89.64 

39.6 

9.999 

89.64 

39.645 

10.019 

89.64 

39.699 

9.978 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.645 

9.978 

89.64 

39.699 

9.978 

89.64 

39.6 

9.954 

89.64 

39.645 

10.039 

89.64 

39.699 

9.999 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.645 

10.019 

89.64 

39.699 

9.978 

89.64 

39.6 

9.995 

89.64 

39.645 

9.978 

89.64 

39.699 

10.035 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.645 

9.999 

89.64 

39.699 

10.015 

89.64 

39.6 

10.035 

89.64 

39.645 

10.019 

89.64 

39.699 

10.019 

89.685 

39.6 

10.019 

89.685 

39.645 

9.999 

89.685 

39.699 

9.999 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

9.999 

89.685 

39.699 


103 


Table B.6a. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 
Test date: Sept. 03 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_045.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

#C) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<*(“) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

«H°) 

OD 

10.019 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

9.978 

89.685 

39.699 

9.999 

89.685 

39.6 

9.978 

89.685 

39.645 

9.954 

89.685 

39.699 

10.015 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

9.995 

89.685 

39.699 

9.995 

89.685 

39.6 

10.019 

89.685 

39.645 

9.954 

89.685 

39.699 

9.974 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

9.974 

89.685 

39.699 

10.015 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

10.015 

89.685 

39.699 

9.954 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

10.015 

89.685 

39.699 

9.954 

89.685 

39.6 

9.999 

89.685 

39.645 

10.035 

89.685 

39.699 

9.999 

89.73 

39.6 

10.019 

89.73 

39.645 

9.958 

89.73 

39.699 

10.039 

89.73 

39.6 

9.958 

89.73 

39.645 

10.019 

89.73 

39.699 

9.999 

89.73 

39.6 

10.019 

89.73 

39.645 

10.019 

89.73 

39.699 

10.019 

89.73 

39.6 

9.999 

89.73 

39.645 

10.019 

89.73 

39.699 

9.999 

89.73 

39.6 

9.999 

89.73 

39.645 

9.978 

89.73 

39.699 

9.978 

89.73 

39.6 

10.019 

89.73 

39.645 

10.019 

89.73 

39.699 

10.019 

89.73 

39.6 

10.019 

89.73 

39.645 

10.019 

89.73 

39.699 

9.999 

89.73 

39.6 

9.999 

89.73 

39.645 

9.978 

89.73 

39.699 

10.015 

89.73 

39.6 

9.999 

89.73 

39.645 

9.978 

89.73 

39.699 

10.015 

89.73 

39.6 

10.015 

89.73 

39.645 

10.015 

89.73 

39.699 

9.978 

89.775 

39.6 

10.019 

89.775 

39.645 

9.999 

89.775 

39.699 

10.019 

89.775 

39.6 

9.999 

89.775 

39.645 

9.978 

89.775 

39.699 

10.019 

89.775 

39.6 

10.019 

89.775 

39.645 

10.019 

89.775 

39.699 

10.019 

89.775 

39.6 

10.019 

89.775 

39.645 

9.999 

89.775 

39.699 

9.978 

89.775 

39.6 

9.999 

89.775 

39.645 

10.019 

89.775 

39.699 

9.978 

89.775 

39.6 

10.019 

89.775 

39.645 

9.999 

89.775 

39.699 

9.999 

89.775 

39.6 

10.039 

89.775 

39.645 

10.019 

89.775 

39.699 

9.958 

89.775 

39.6 

9.999 

89.775 

39.645 

10.015 

89.775 

39.699 

9.995 

89.775 

39.6 

9.999 

89.775 

39.645 

10.015 

89.775 

39.699 

9.995 

89.775 

39.6 

9.995 

89.775 

39.645 

10.015 

89.775 

39.699 

9.958 

89.82 

39.6 

9.999 

89.82 

39.645 

10.019 

89.82 

39.699 

10.019 

89.82 

39.6 

10.019 

89.82 

39.645 

9.999 

89.82 

39.699 

9.978 

89.82 

39.6 

9.978 

89.82 

39.645 

9.958 

89.82 

39.699 

9.999 

89.82 

39.6 

9.978 

89.82 

39.645 

9.958 

89.82 

39.699 

9.978 

89.82 

39.6 

9.978 

89.82 

39.645 

9.999 

89.82 

39.699 

10.019 

89.82 

39.6 

9.999 

89.82 

39.645 

10.019 

89.82 

39.699 

9.999 

89.82 

39.6 

9.958 

89.82 

39.645 

10.039 

89.82 

39.699 

9.958 

89.82 

39.6 

9.958 

89.82 

39.645 

9.999 

89.82 

39.699 

9.999 

89.82 

39.6 

9.999 

89.82 

39.645 

9.978 

89.82 

39.699 

9.999 

89.82 

39.6 

9.958 

89.82 

39.645 

10.015 

89.82 

39.699 

9.999 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

10.019 

89.865 

39.699 

9.978 

89.865 

39.6 

9.978 

89.865 

39.645 

10.019 

89.865 

39.699 

9.999 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

9.999 

89.865 

39.699 

10.019 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

9.958 

89.865 

39.699 

9.978 

89.865 

39.6 

10.019 

89.865 

39.645 

9.995 

89.865 

39.699 

9.954 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

9.954 

89.865 

39.69 

9.995 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

9.974 

89.865 

39.69 

9.995 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

9.995 

89.865 

39.69 

10.015 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

10.015 

89.865 

39.69 

10.015 

89.865 

39.6 

9.999 

89.865 

39.645 

10.015 

89.865 

39.69 

9.978 

89.91 

39.6 

9.958 

89.91 

39.645 

9.999 

89.91 

39.69 

9.999 

89.91 

39.6 

10.019 

89.91 

39.645 

9.978 

89.91 

39.69 


104 


Table B.6a. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 03, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_045.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

tr ) 

or) 

Range (m) 

t(°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

#o 

or) 

9.978 

89.91 

39.6 

9.958 

89.91 

39.645 

9.978 

89.91 

39.69 

10.019 

89.91 

39.6 

10.019 

89.91 

39.645 

9.999 

89.91 

39.69 

10.019 

89.91 

39.6 

9.999 

89.91 

39.645 

9.999 

89.91 

39.69 

9.999 

89.91 

39.6 

9.958 

89.91 

39.645 

10.019 

89.91 

39.69 

9.978 

89.91 

39.6 

9.958 

89.91 

39.645 

10.019 

89.91 

39.69 

10.019 

89.91 

39.6 

9.958 

89.91 

39.645 

9.999 

89.91 

39.69 

9.999 

89.91 

39.6 

10.019 

89.91 

39.645 

9.999 

89.91 

39.69 

9.978 

89.91 

39.6 

10.015 

89.91 

39.645 

10.019 

89.91 

39.69 

9.978 

89.955 

39.6 

10.019 

89.955 

39.645 

9.978 

89.955 

39.69 

10.019 

89.955 

39.6 

9.978 

89.955 

39.645 

9.999 

89.955 

39.69 

9.958 

89.955 

39.6 

10.019 

89.955 

39.645 

9.978 

89.955 

39.69 

9.999 

89.955 

39.6 

9.978 

89.955 

39.645 

10.019 

89.955 

39.69 

10.039 

89.955 

39.6 

9.999 

89.955 

39.645 

9.958 

89.955 

39.69 

9.999 

89.955 

39.6 

10.019 

89.955 

39.645 

10.019 

89.955 

39.69 

9.958 

89.955 

39.6 

10.019 

89.955 

39.645 

10.019 

89.955 

39.69 

10.019 

89.955 

39.6 

10.019 

89.955 

39.645 

9.978 

89.955 

39.69 

9.999 

89.955 

39.6 

9.999 

89.955 

39.645 

9.974 

89.955 

39.69 

9.954 

89.955 

39.6 

10.019 

89.955 

39.645 

9.995 

89.955 

39.69 

9.958 

90 

39.6 

9.978 

90 

39.645 

9.978 

90 

39.69 

9.999 

90 

39.6 

10.019 

90 

39.645 

9.958 

90 

39.69 

10.039 

90 

39.6 

9.999 

90 

39.645 

10.039 

90 

39.69 

9.978 

90 

39.6 

9.978 

90 

39.645 

10.039 

90 

39.69 

10.019 

90 

39.6 

9.978 

90 

39.645 

9.978 

90 

39.69 

9.999 

90 

39.6 

10.019 

90 

39.645 

10.019 

90 

39.69 

9.958 

90 

39.6 

10.019 

90 

39.645 

10.019 

90 

39.69 

10.019 

90 

39.6 

10.019 

90 

39.645 

10.039 

90 

39.69 

9.938 

90 

39.6 

9.974 

90 

39.645 

9.978 

90 

39.69 

10.019 

90 

39.6 

9.995 

90 

39.645 

10.019 

90 

39.69 

9.999 

90.045 

39.6 

9.999 

90.045 

39.645 

10.019 

90.045 

39.69 

10.019 

90.045 

39.6 

9.958 

90.045 

39.645 

9.999 

90.045 

39.699 

9.978 

90.045 

39.6 

10.019 

90.045 

39.645 

9.978 

90.045 

39.69 

9.999 

90.045 

39.6 

9.978 

90.045 

39.645 

9.978 

90.045 

39.69 

9.958 

90.045 

39.6 

9.999 

90.045 

39.645 

9.999 

90.045 

39.69 

10.019 

90.045 

39.6 

10.019 

90.045 

39.645 

10.019 

90.045 

39.69 

10.019 

90.045 

39.6 

9.999 

90.045 

39.645 

9.999 

90.045 

39.69 

9.958 

90.045 

39.6 

9.999 

90.045 

39.645 

9.978 

90.045 

39.69 

9.995 

90.045 

39.6 

10.019 

90.045 

39.645 

9.974 

90.045 

39.69 

9.954 

90.045 

39.6 

10.019 

90.045 

39.645 

10.015 

90.045 

39.69 

10.019 

90.09 

39.6 

9.978 

90.09 

39.645 

9.999 

90.09 

39.699 

10.019 

90.09 

39.6 

9.958 

90.09 

39.645 

10.019 

90.09 

39.699 

9.999 

90.09 

39.6 

10.019 

90.09 

39.645 

9.999 

90.09 

39.699 

10.019 

90.09 

39.6 

9.999 

90.09 

39.645 

9.999 

90.09 

39.699 

9.958 

90.09 

39.6 

10.019 

90.09 

39.645 

10.019 

90.09 

39.699 

10.019 

90.09 

39.6 

10.019 

90.09 

39.645 

9.978 

90.09 

39.699 

10.019 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.645 

9.978 

90.09 

39.699 

9.958 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.645 

10.019 

90.09 

39.69 

9.999 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.645 

9.978 

90.09 

39.69 

9.978 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.645 

9.958 

90.09 

39.69 

10.019 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

10.019 

90.135 

39.699 

10.019 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

10.019 

90.135 

39.699 


105 


Table B.6a. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 03, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_045.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (in) 

<H°) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0 (° ) 

Range (m) 

#(*) 

or) 

9.978 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

9.958 

90.135 

39.699 

9.999 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

9.999 

90.135 

39.699 

10.019 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

10.019 

90.135 

39.699 

10.019 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

9.978 

90.135 

39.699 

10.019 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

9.938 

90.135 

39.699 

10.019 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

10.019 

90.135 

39.699 

9.978 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

9.999 

90.135 

39.699 

9.978 

90.135 

39.6 

10.019 

90.135 

39.645 

9.995 

90.135 

39.699 

9.999 

90.18 

39.6 

10.019 

90.18 

39.645 

10.019 

90.18 

39.699 

10.019 

90.18 

39.6 

9.958 

90.18 

39.645 

9.999 

90.18 

39.699 

9.958 

90.18 

39.6 

10.019 

90.18 

39.645 

9.958 

90.18 

39.699 

9.999 

90.18 

39.6 

10.019 

90.18 

39.645 

9.958 

90.18 

39.699 

10.019 

90.18 

39.6 

10.019 

90.18 

39.645 

9.999 

90.18 

39.699 

10.019 

90.18 

39.6 

10.035 

90.18 

39.645 

9.978 

90.18 

39.699 

9.978 

90.18 

39.6 

10.015 

90.18 

39.645 

10.019 

90.18 

39.699 

10.019 

90.18 

39.6 

9.954 

90.18 

39.645 

9.999 

90.18 

39.699 

9.978 

90.18 

39.6 

10.035 

90.18 

39.645 

9.999 

90.18 

39.699 

9.958 

90.18 

39.6 

10.015 

90.18 

39.645 

9.999 

90.18 

39.699 

9.978 

90.225 

39.6 

9.999 

90.225 

39.645 

9.978 

90.225 

39.699 

10.019 

90.225 

39.6 

9.999 

90.225 

39.645 

9.999 

90.225 

39.699 

10.019 

90.225 

39.6 

9.999 

90.225 

39.645 

10.019 

90.225 

39.699 

9.978 

90.225 

39.6 

9.978 

90.225 

39.645 

9.999 

90.225 

39.699 

9.999 

90.225 

39.6 

9.999 

90.225 

39.645 

10.019 

90.225 

39.699 

9.978 

90.225 

39.6 

9.999 

90.225 

39.645 

9.999 

90.225 

39.699 

10.019 

90.225 

39.6 

10.019 

90.225 

39.645 

9.999 

90.225 

39.699 

9.999 

90.225 

39.6 

10.019 

90.225 

39.645 

9.999 

90.225 

39.699 

10.035 

90.225 

39.6 

9.999 

90.225 

39.645 

9.999 

90.225 

39.699 

9.974 

90.225 

39.6 

10.019 

90.225 

39.645 

9.974 

90.225 

39.699 

9.999 

90.27 

39.6 

9.999 

90.27 

39.645 

10.019 

90.27 

39.699 

9.958 

90.27 

39.6 

9.958 

90.27 

39.645 

10.019 

90.27 

39.699 

9.958 

90.27 

39.6 

9.999 

90.27 

39.645 

9.978 

90.27 

39.699 

9.999 

90.27 

39.6 

9.999 

90.27 

39.645 

9.958 

90.27 

39.699 

10.019 

90.27 

39.6 

9.995 

90.27 

39.645 

9.978 

90.27 

39.699 

9.999 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.645 

10.019 

90.27 

39.699 

9.999 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.645 

9.978 

90.27 

39.699 

10.019 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.645 

9.958 

90.27 

39.699 

9.999 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.645 

9.978 

90.27 

39.699 

9.999 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.645 

10.019 

90.27 

39.699 

9.999 

90.315 

39.6 

9.999 

90.315 

39.645 

10.019 

90.315 

39.699 

10.019 

90.315 

39.6 

9.978 

90.315 

39.645 

9.999 

90.315 

39.699 

9.978 

90.315 

39.6 

10.019 

90.315 

39.645 

10.019 

90.315 

39.699 

9.958 

90.315 

39.6 

10.019 

90.315 

39.645 

10.019 

90.315 

39.699 

10.015 

90.315 

39.6 

10.019 

90.315 

39.645 

9.978 

90.315 

39.699 

9.999 

90.315 

39.6 

9.978 

90.315 

39.645 

10.019 

90.315 

39.699 

9.974 

90.315 

39.6 

10.059 

90.315 

39.645 

10.015 

90.315 

39.699 

10.015 

90.315 

39.6 

9.999 

90.315 

39.645 

9.974 

90.315 

39.699 

9.974 

90.315 

39.6 

10.015 

90.315 

39.645 

9.995 

90.315 

39.699 

10.015 

90.315 

39.6 

9.974 

90.315 

39.645 

10.015 

90.315 

39.699 

9.958 

90.36 

39.6 

10.019 

90.36 

39.645 

9.999 

90.36 

39.699 

10.019 

90.36 

39.6 

9.999 

90.36 

39.645 

9.978 

90.36 

39.699 


106 


Table B. 6a. DataSet?: Covariance, 0.045° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg, 226 

Test date: Sept. 03, 2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_045.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

*H°) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<*(”) 

or) 

Range (m) 


or) 

10.019 

90.36 

39.6 

9.978 

90.36 

39.645 

10.019 

90.36 

39.699 

10.019 

90.36 

39.6 

10.019 

90.36 

39.645 

10.019 

90.36 

39.699 

9.978 

90.36 

39.6 

9.978 

90.36 

39.645 

9.999 

90.36 

39.699 

9.978 

90.36 

39.6 

9.999 

90.36 

39.645 

9.999 

90.36 

39.699 

10.039 

90.36 

39.6 

9.958 

90.36 

39.645 

9.958 

90.36 

39.699 

10.019 

90.36 

39.6 

9.999 

90.36 

39.645 

10.019 

90.36 

39.699 

10.019 

90.36 

39.6 

9.978 

90.36 

39.645 

10.019 

90.36 

39.699 

10.015 

90.36 

39.6 

9.995 

90.36 

39.645 

10.019 

90.36 

39.699 

9.999 

90.405 

39.6 

9.999 

90.405 

39.645 

9.999 

90.405 

39.699 

10.039 

90.405 

39.6 

9.999 

90.405 

39.645 

9.999 

90.405 

39.699 

9.978 

90.405 

39.6 

9.999 

90.405 

39.645 

10.019 

90.405 

39.699 

9.978 

90.405 

39.6 

9.978 

90.405 

39.645 

10.019 

90.405 

39.69 

10.035 

90.405 

39.6 

9.999 

90.405 

39.645 

9.974 

90.405 

39.69 

10.015 

90.405 

39.6 

10.019 

90.405 

39.645 

10.015 

90.405 

39.69 

9.974 

90.405 

39.6 

10.019 

90.405 

39.645 

10.015 

90.405 

39.69 

10.015 

90.405 

39.6 

10.019 

90.405 

39.645 

10.035 

90.405 

39.69 

9.954 

90.405 

39.6 

9.999 

90.405 

39.645 

9.974 

90.405 

39.69 

9.974 

90.405 

39.6 

9.995 

90.405 

39.645 

9.974 

90.405 

39.69 

9.978 

90.45 

39.6 

9.999 

90.45 

39.645 

9.999 

90.45 

39.69 

10.019 

90.45 

39.6 

10.019 

90.45 

39.645 

9.978 

90.45 

39.69 

9.978 

90.45 

39.6 

9.999 

90.45 

39.645 

9.978 

90.45 

39.69 

9.978 

90.45 

39.6 

9.978 

90.45 

39.645 

10.019 

90.45 

39.69 

10.019 

90.45 

39.6 

9.978 

90.45 

39.645 

9.978 

90.45 

39.69 

10.019 

90.45 

39.6 

9.999 

90.45 

39.645 

10.019 

90.45 

39.69 

9.978 

90.45 

39.6 

9.978 

90.45 

39.645 

9.999 

90.45 

39.69 

9.999 

90.45 

39.6 

9.978 

90.45 

39.645 

9.978 

90.45 

39.69 

9.978 

90.45 

39.6 

9.978 

90.45 

39.645 

9.999 

90.45 

39.69 

9.999 

90.45 

39.6 

9.974 

90.45 

39.645 

10.019 

90.45 

39.69 

10.019 

90.495 

39.6 

9.999 

90.495 

39.645 

9.978 

90.495 

39.69 

10.019 

90.495 

39.6 

9.999 

90.495 

39.645 

10.019 

90.495 

39.69 

9.999 

90.495 

39.6 

9.978 

90.495 

39.645 

9.999 

90.495 

39.69 

10.019 

90.495 

39.6 

10.019 

90.495 

39.645 

10.019 

90.495 

39.69 

9.958 

90.495 

39.6 

10.039 

90.495 

39.645 

10.019 

90.495 

39.69 

10.019 

90.495 

39.6 

9.999 

90.495 

39.645 

9.999 

90.495 

39.69 

10.019 

90.495 

39.6 

9.978 

90.495 

39.645 

10.019 

90.495 

39.69 

10.015 

90.495 

39.6 

9.999 

90.495 

39.645 

10.015 

90.495 

39.69 

9.995 

90.495 

39.6 

9.999 

90.495 

39.645 

10.015 

90.495 

39.69 

9.995 

90.495 

39.6 

9.978 

90.495 

39.645 

9.995 

90.495 

39.69 

9.999 

90.54 

39.6 

10.019 

90.54 

39.636 

9.978 

90.54 

39.699 

9.999 

90.54 

39.6 

9.999 

90.54 

39.645 

9.999 

90.54 

39.699 

9.978 

90.54 

39.6 

10.019 

90.54 

39.645 

10.019 

90.54 

39.699 

9.978 

90.54 

39.6 

9.995 

90.54 

39.645 

9.999 

90.54 

39.69 

10.019 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.645 

10.019 

90.54 

39.69 

9.999 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.645 

10.019 

90.54 

39.69 

9.978 

90.54 

39.6 

9.954 

90.54 

39.645 

9.978 

90.54 

39.69 

10.039 

90.54 

39.6 

9.954 

90.54 

39.645 

9.999 

90.54 

39.69 

9.999 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.645 

10.019 

90.54 

39.69 

10.019 

90.54 

39.6 

9.974 

90.54 

39.645 

10.039 

90.54 

39.69 


107 


Table B.6b. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_090.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

$H°) 

8{°) 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<*C) 

or) 

10.015 

88.92 

39.6 

10.035 

88.92 

39.69 

10.03 

88.92 

39.78 

9.995 

88.92 

39.6 

9.995 

88.92 

39.69 

9.969 

88.92 

39.78 

10.015 

88.92 

39.6 

10.035 

88.92 

39.69 

10.01 

88.92 

39.78 

9.974 

88.92 

39.6 

10.01 

88.92 

39.69 

9.989 

88.92 

39.78 

9.989 

88.92 

39.6 

10.03 

88.92 

39.69 

9.989 

88.92 

39.78 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.03 

88.92 

39.69 

9.969 

88.92 

39.78 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.03 

88.92 

39.69 

9.969 

88.92 

39.78 

9.969 

88.92 

39.6 

10.03 

88.92 

39.69 

9.989 

88.92 

39.78 

9.969 

88.92 

39.6 

10.01 

88.92 

39.69 

10.01 

88.92 

39.78 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.03 

88.92 

39.69 

9.969 

88.92 

39.78 

9.974 

89.01 

39.6 

10.015 

89.01 

39.69 

9.995 

89.01 

39.78 

10.035 

89.01 

39.6 

10.015 

89.01 

39.69 

10.015 

89.01 

39.78 

10.035 

89.01 

39.6 

9.974 

89.01 

39.69 

10.035 

89.01 

39.78 

9.974 

89.01 

39.6 

10.015 

89.01 

39.69 

9.974 

89.01 

39.78 

9.995 

89.01 

39.6 

10.015 

89.01 

39.69 

10.015 

89.01 

39.78 

9.974 

89.01 

39.6 

10.015 

89.01 

39.69 

10.035 

89.01 

39.78 

9.974 

89.01 

39.6 

10.01 

89.01 

39.69 

10.015 

89.01 

39.78 

9.989 

89.01 

39.6 

10.01 

89.01 

39.69 

10.01 

89.01 

39.78 

10.01 

89.01 

39.6 

10.01 

89.01 

39.69 

9.989 

89.01 

39.78 

10.01 

89.01 

39.6 

9.989 

89.01 

39.69 

10.01 

89.01 

39.78 

9.974 

89.1 

39.6 

9.954 

89.1 

39.69 

10.015 

89.1 

39.78 

10.015 

89.1 

39.6 

9.989 

89.1 

39.69 

10.015 

89.1 

39.78 

9.974 

89.1 

39.6 

9.969 

89.1 

39.69 

10.035 

89.1 

39.78 

9.995 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.69 

10.035 

89.1 

39.78 

9.995 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.69 

10.015 

89.1 

39.78 

10.015 

89.1 

39.6 

9.969 

89.1 

39.69 

10.035 

89.1 

39.78 

10.015 

89.1 

39.6 

9.969 

89.1 

39.69 

10.015 

89.1 

39.78 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.69 

9.995 

89.1 

39.78 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

9.969 

89.1 

39.69 

9.995 

89.1 

39.78 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.69 

10.03 

89.1 

39.78 

10.015 

89.19 

39.6 

10.015 

89.19 

39.69 

9.995 

89.19 

39.78 

9.974 

89.19 

39.6 

9.995 

89.19 

39.69 

9.995 

89.19 

39.78 

10.015 

89.19 

39.6 

9.974 

89.19 

39.69 

10.015 

89.19 

39.78 

9.974 

89.19 

39.6 

9.995 

89.19 

39.69 

10.015 

89.19 

39.78 

10.015 

89.19 

39.6 

10.015 

89.19 

39.69 

10.015 

89.19 

39.78 

10.015 

89.19 

39.6 

10.015 

89.19 

39.69 

10.035 

89.19 

39.78 

10.015 

89.19 

39.6 

10.01 

89.19 

39.69 

10.015 

89.19 

39.78 

9.974 

89.19 

39.6 

9.969 

89.19 

39.69 

10.01 

89.19 

39.78 

9.969 

89.19 

39.6 

10.01 

89.19 

39.69 

9.989 

89.19 

39.78 

9.969 

89.19 

39.6 

9.989 

89.19 

39.69 

10.01 

89.19 

39.78 

9.995 

89.28 

39.6 

10.035 

89.28 

39.69 

10.015 

89.28 

39.78 

10.015 

89.28 

39.6 

10.015 

89.28 

39.69 

10.015 

89.28 

39.78 

10.015 

89228 

39.6 

10.015 

89.28 

39.69 

9.995 

89.28 

39.78 

10.035 

89.28 

39.6 

10.015 

89.28 

39.69 

9.995 

89.28 

39.78 

10.015 

89.28 

39.6 

10.015 

89.28 

39.69 

10.015 

89.28 

39.78 

10.015 

89.28 

39.6 

10.015 

89.28 

39.69 

10.015 

89.28 

39.78 

9.995 

89.28 

39.6 

9.995 

89.28 

39.69 

10.035 

89.28 

39.78 

10.015 

89.28 

39.6 

10.015 

89.28 

39.69 

9.989 

89.28 

39.78 

10.01 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.69 

9.995 

89.28 

39.78 


108 


Table B.6b. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_090.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<P(°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

4>r ) 

or) 

9.969 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.69 

9.995 

89.28 

39.78 

9.995 

89.37 

39.6 

9.974 

89.37 

39.69 

10.015 

89.37 

39.78 

9.995 

89.37 

39.6 

10.015 

89.37 

39.69 

9.974 

89.37 

39.78 

10.015 

89.37 

39.6 

10.015 

89.37 

39.69 

9.974 

89.37 

39.78 

10.055 

89.37 

39.6 

10.015 

89.37 

39.69 

9.974 

89.37 

39.78 

10.035 

89.37 

39.6 

10.01 

89.37 

39.69 

10.015 

89.37 

39.78 

10.035 

89.37 

39.6 

9.969 

89.37 

39.69 

10.015 

89.37 

39.78 

9.974 

89.37 

39.6 

9.969 

89.37 

39.69 

10.035 

89.37 

39.78 

10.035 

89.37 

39.6 

10.01 

89.37 

39.69 

10.015 

89.37 

39.78 

10.015 

89.37 

39.6 

9.989 

89.37 

39.69 

9.995 

89.37 

39.78 

9.989 

89.37 

39.6 

10.01 

89.37 

39.69 

10.01 

89.37 

39.78 

10.015 

89.46 

39.6 

10.035 

89.46 

39.69 

10.015 

89.46 

39.78 

10.015 

89.46 

39.6 

9.954 

89.46 

39.69 

10.015 

89.46 

39.78 

9.954 

89.46 

39.6 

10.035 

89.46 

39.69 

9.974 

89.46 

39.78 

10.015 

89.46 

39.6 

10.015 

89.46 

39.69 

9.974 

89.46 

39.78 

10.035 

89.46 

39.6 

9.989 

89.46 

39.69 

10.035 

89.46 

39.78 

10.015 

89.46 

39.6 

9.989 

89.46 

39.69 

10.015 

89.46 

39.78 

10.015 

89.46 

39.6 

10.03 

89.46 

39.69 

10.015 

89.46 

39.78 

9.974 

89.46 

39.6 

9.989 

89.46 

39.69 

10.015 

89.46 

39.78 

9.995 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.69 

9.995 

89.46 

39.78 

10.055 

89.46 

39.6 

9.989 

89.46 

39.69 

9.995 

89.46 

39.78 

9.995 

89.55 

39.6 

10.035 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.78 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

10.015 

89.55 

39.69 

10.035 

89.55 

39.78 

10.035 

89.55 

39.6 

9.974 

89.55 

39.69 

10.035 

89.55 

39.78 

9.974 

89.55 

39.6 

9.995 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.78 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

9.995 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.78 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

9.974 

89.55 

39.69 

9.974 

89.55 

39.78 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

10.01 

89.55 

39.69 

9.974 

89.55 

39.78 

10.015 

89.55 

39.6 

10.01 

89.55 

39.69 

10.035 

89.55 

39.78 

10.035 

89.55 

39.6 

9.949 

89.55 

39.69 

10.015 

89.55 

39.78 

10.01 

89.55 

39.6 

10.03 

89.55 

39.69 

9.974 

89.55 

39.78 

10.015 

89.64 

39.6 

10.055 

89.64 

39.69 

10.015 

89.64 

39.78 

10.035 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.69 

10.015 

89.64 

39.78 

10.015 

89.64 

39.6 

9.995 

89.64 

39.69 

10.015 

89.64 

39.78 

9.974 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.69 

10.015 

89.64 

39.78 

9.974 

89.64 

39.6 

9.974 

89.64 

39.69 

9.974 

89.64 

39.78 

9.974 

89.64 

39.6 

9.995 

89.64 

39.69 

10.015 

89.64 

39.78 

9.974 

89.64 

39.6 

9.974 

89.64 

39.69 

9.974 

89.64 

39.78 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.69 

10.03 

89.64 

39.78 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

10.015 

89.64 

39.69 

10.03 

89.64 

39.78 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

9.969 

89.64 

39.69 

9.969 

89.64 

39.78 

10.035 

89.73 

39.6 

10.015 

89.73 

39.69 

10.015 

89.73 

39.78 

10.015 

89.73 

39.6 

10.015 

89.73 

39.69 

9.995 

89.73 

39.78 

10.015 

89.73 

39.6 

10.035 

89.73 

39.69 

10.015 

89.73 

39.78 

9.989 

89.73 

39.6 

10.015 

89.73 

39.69 

10.015 

89.73 

39.78 

9.974 

89.73 

39.6 

9.995 

89.73 

39.69 

9.989 

89.73 

39.78 

10.01 

89.73 

39.6 

9.974 

89.73 

39.69 

9.995 

89.73 

39.78 

10.01 

89.73 

39.6 

9.974 

89.73 

39.69 

9.969 

89.73 

39.78 

10.01 

89.73 

39.6 

10.01 

89.73 

39.69 

9.969 

89.73 

39.78 

10.01 

89.73 

39.6 

10.03 

89.73 

39.69 

10.03 

89.73 

39.78 


109 


Table B. 6b. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance 10m 090.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

<K°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0(°) 

10.01 

89.73 

39.6 

10.01 

89.73 

39.69 

9.969 

89.73 

39.78 

10.015 

89.82 

39.6 

9.974 

89.82 

39.69 

10.015 

89.82 

39.78 

10.015 

89.82 

39.6 

9.954 

89.82 

39.69 

9.995 

89.82 

39.78 

10.015 

89.82 

39.6 

10.015 

89.82 

39.69 

10.015 

89.82 

39.78 

10.015 

89.82 

39.6 

9.974 

89.82 

39.69 

10.015 

89.82 

39.78 

9.974 

89.82 

39.6 

10.015 

89.82 

39.69 

10.015 

89.82 

39.78 

9.989 

89.82 

39.6 

9.995 

89.82 

39.69 

9.969 

89.82 

39.78 

9.969 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.69 

9.969 

89.82 

39.78 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

9.969 

89.82 

39.69 

10.01 

89.82 

39.78 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.69 

10.01 

89.82 

39.78 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

9.989 

89.82 

39.69 

10.01 

89.82 

39.78 

9.995 

89.91 

39.6 

9.995 

89.91 

39.69 

9.954 

89.91 

39.78 

9.974 

89.91 

39.6 

9.995 

89.91 

39.69 

10.015 

89.91 

39.78 

9.974 

89.91 

39.6 

9.995 

89.91 

39.69 

9.989 

89.91 

39.78 

10.015 

89.91 

39.6 

10.035 

89.91 

39.69 

10.03 

89.91 

39.78 

9.989 

89.91 

39.6 

9.949 

89.91 

39.69 

10.03 

89.91 

39.78 

10.01 

89.91 

39.6 

9.989 

89.91 

39.69 

9.974 

89.91 

39.78 

9.989 

89.91 

39.6 

9.969 

89.91 

39.69 

9.969 

89.91 

39.78 

10.01 

89.91 

39.6 

10.01 

89.91 

39.69 

10.01 

89.91 

39.78 

10.01 

89.91 

39.6 

9.989 

89.91 

39.69 

10.03 

89.91 

39.78 

10.01 

89.91 

39.6 

9.969 

89.91 

39.69 

10.03 

89.91 

39.78 

9.995 

90 

39.6 

9.974 

90 

39.69 

10.015 

90 

39.78 

10.035 

90 

39.6 

9.969 

90 

39.69 

10.015 

90 

39.78 

9.995 

90 

39.6 

9.974 

90 

39.69 

10.015 

90 

39.78 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

10.01 

90 

39.69 

10.01 

90 

39.78 

9.989 

90 

39.6 

9.989 

90 

39.69 

10.015 

90 

39.78 

9.989 

90 

39.6 

9.989 

90 

39.69 

10.01 

90 

39.78 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

9.969 

90 

39.69 

9.989 

90 

39.78 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

10.01 

90 

39.69 

9.989 

90 

39.78 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

9.969 

90 

39.69 

10.01 

90 

39.78 

10.03 

90 

39.6 

10.03 

90 

39.69 

9.969 

90 

39.78 

10.015 

90.09 

39.6 

9.995 

90.09 

39.69 

10.015 

90.09 

39.78 

9.995 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.69 

10.015 

90.09 

39.78 

9.954 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.69 

9.974 

90.09 

39.78 

10.015 

90.09 

39.6 

10.015 

90.09 

39.69 

9.969 

90.09 

39.78 

10.01 

90.09 

39.6 

9.989 

90.09 

39.69 

10.01 

90.09 

39.78 

10.03 

90.09 

39.6 

9.989 

90.09 

39.69 

10.01 

90.09 

39.78 

10.01 

90.09 

39.6 

10.01 

90.09 

39.69 

10.01 

90.09 

39.78 

9.969 

90.09 

39.6 

9.949 

90.09 

39.69 

10.01 

90.09 

39.78 

9.969 

90.09 

39.6 

9.969 

90.09 

39.69 

10.01 

90.09 

39.78 

9.989 

90.09 

39.6 

10.01 

90.09 

39.69 

10.01 

90.09 

39.78 

10.015 

90.18 

39.6 

10.015 

90.18 

39.69 

9.995 

90.18 

39.78 

9.974 

90.18 

39.6 

10.015 

90.18 

39.69 

9.995 

90.18 

39.78 

9.995 

90.18 

39.6 

10.015 

90.18 

39.69 

10.015 

90.18 

39.78 

9.974 

90.18 

39.6 

10.015 

90.18 

39.69 

10.015 

90.18 

39.78 

9.969 

90.18 

39.6 

9.969 

90.18 

39.69 

9.989 

90.18 

39.78 

9.969 

90.18 

39.6 

9.969 

90.18 

39.69 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

9.989 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.69 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

10.01 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.69 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

10.03 

90.18 

39.6 

10.05 

90.18 

39.69 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 


110 


Table B. 6b. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 2002 





File: dataset7_covanance_l 0m_090.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

t(°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

H°) 

«(°) 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

or) 

10.01 

90.18 

39.6 

10.03 

90.18 

39.69 

9.989 

90.18 

39.78 

10.015 

90.27 

39.6 

9.954 

90.27 

39.69 

9.974 

90.27 

39.78 

10.015 

90.27 

39.6 

9.995 

90.27 

39.69 

10.035 

90.27 

39.78 

10.035 

90.27 

39.6 

9.954 

90.27 

39.69 

9.974 

90.27 

39.78 

9.995 

90.27 

39.6 

9.995 

90.27 

39.69 

9.995 

90.27 

39.78 

9.995 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.69 

10.015 

90.27 

39.78 

10.015 

90.27 

39.6 

9.995 

90.27 

39.69 

9.995 

90.27 

39.78 

10.015 

90.27 

39.6 

10.015 

90.27 

39.69 

10.015 

90.27 

39.78 

10.03 

90.27 

39.6 

9.974 

90.27 

39.69 

10.015 

9027 

39.78 

9.969 

90.27 

39.6 

9.969 

90.27 

39.69 

9.989 

90.27 

39.78 

9.969 

90.27 

39.6 

10.03 

90.27 

39.69 

10.01 

90.27 

39.78 

10.015 

90.36 

39.6 

9.954 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

10.015 

90.36 

39.6 

10.035 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

10.015 

90.36 

39.6 

10.015 

90.36 

39.69 

9.974 

90.36 

39.78 

9.995 

90.36 

39.6 

10.015 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

10.015 

90.36 

39.6 

9.974 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

10.015 

90.36 

39.6 

9.974 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

10.035 

90.36 

39.6 

9.989 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

9.974 

90.36 

39.6 

10.01 

90.36 

39.69 

10.015 

90.36 

39.78 

10.01 

90.36 

39.6 

9.969 

90.36 

39.69 

9.969 

90.36 

39.78 

10.01 

90.36 

39.6 

9.969 

90.36 

39.69 

9.969 

90.36 

39.78 

9.974 

90.45 

39.6 

10.015 

90.45 

39.69 

9.974 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.45 

39.6 

10.015 

90.45 

39.69 

9.974 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.45 

39.6 

10.015 

90.45 

39.69 

9.974 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.45 

39.6 

9.974 

90.45 

39.69 

9.954 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.45 

39.6 

9.995 

90.45 

39.69 

10.015 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.45 

39.6 

10.035 

90.45 

39.69 

10.015 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.45 

39.6 

9.974 

90.45 

39.69 

10.01 

90.45 

39.78 

10.01 

90.45 

39.6 

10.015 

90.45 

39.69 

10.01 

90.45 

39.78 

9.969 

90.45 

39.6 

9.995 

90.45 

39.69 

9.969 

90.45 

39.78 

10.01 

90.45 

39.6 

9.969 

90.45 

39.69 

9.989 

90.45 

39.78 

10.015 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.69 

10.015 

90.54 

39.78 

10.015 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.69 

9.995 

90.54 

39.78 

9.995 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.69 

9.995 

90.54 

39.78 

9.974 

90.54 

39.6 

9.974 

90.54 

39.69 

9.995 

90.54 

39.78 

10.015 

90.54 

39.6 

10.035 

90.54 

39.69 

10.015 

90.54 

39.78 

10.035 

90.54 

39.6 

10.035 

90.54 

39.69 

10.015 

90.54 

39.78 

10.015 

90.54 

39.6 

9.974 

90.54 

39.69 

10.015 

90.54 

39.78 

9.995 

90.54 

39.6 

10.055 

90.54 

39.69 

10.01 

90.54 

39.78 

9.969 

90.54 

39.6 

9.974 

90.54 

39.69 

9.969 

90.54 

39.78 

9.969 

90.54 

39.6 

10.015 

90.54 

39.69 

10.03 

90.54 

39.78 

10.015 

90.63 

39.6 

10.015 

90.63 

39.69 

10.015 

90.63 

39.78 

9.974 

90.63 

39.6 

9.995 

90.63 

39.69 

10.015 

90.63 

39.78 

10.015 

90.63 

39.6 

10.015 

90.63 

39.69 

10.015 

90.63 

39.78 

9.974 

90.63 

39.6 

9.995 

90.63 

39.69 

9.995 

90.63 

39.78 

9.974 

90.63 

39.6 

10.015 

90.63 

39.69 

9.969 

90.63 

39.78 

9.969 

90.63 

39.6 

9.995 

90.63 

39.69 

10.03 

90.63 

39.78 

9.969 

90.63 

39.6 

10.015 

90.63 

39.69 

10.01 

90.63 

39.78 

9.989 

90.63 

39.6 

9.974 

90.63 

39.69 

10.03 

90.63 

39.78 

10.01 

90.63 

39.6 

9.995 

90.63 

39.69 

10.03 

90.63 

39.78 


Ill 


Table B.6b. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_090.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0{°) 

Range (m) 

#(°> 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

4>D 

0(°) 

10.03 

90.63 

39.6 

9.995 

90.63 

39.69 

10.01 

90.63 

39.78 

10.015 

90.72 

39.6 

9.995 

90.72 

39.69 

9.954 

90.72 

39.78 

9.995 

90.72 

39.6 

9.974 

90.72 

39.69 

10.015 

90.72 

39.78 

10.035 

90.72 

39.6 

9.974 

90.72 

39.69 

10.015 

90.72 

39.78 

10.015 

90.72 

39.6 

9.974 

90.72 

39.69 

10.015 

90.72 

39.78 

10.015 

90.72 

39.6 

10.015 

90.72 

39.69 

9.995 

90.72 

39.78 

10.015 

90.72 

39.6 

10.035 

90.72 

39.69 

9.974 

90.72 

39.78 

9.995 

90.72 

39.6 

9.974 

90.72 

39.69 

9.974 

90.72 

39.78 

9.995 

90.72 

39.6 

10.015 

90.72 

39.69 

9.974 

90.72 

39.78 

9.974 

90.72 

39.6 

10.035 

90.72 

39.69 

10.035 

90.72 

39.78 

10.05 

90.72 

39.6 

10.015 

90.72 

39.69 

9.974 

90.72 

39.78 

9.954 

90.81 

39.6 

10.015 

90.81 

39.69 

9.995 

90.81 

39.78 

10.015 

90.81 

39.6 

10.015 

90.81 

39.69 

10.015 

90.81 

39.78 

9.969 

90.81 

39.6 

10.035 

90.81 

39.69 

10.055 

90.81 

39.78 

10.01 

90.81 

39.6 

9.995 

90.81 

39.69 

9.989 

90.81 

39.78 

10.01 

90.81 

39.6 

9.995 

90.81 

39.69 

10.01 

90.81 

39.78 

10.01 

90.81 

39.6 

9.995 

90.81 

39.69 

10.01 

90.81 

39.78 

10.01 

90.81 

39.6 

10.015 

90.81 

39.69 

9.989 

90.81 

39.78 

10.01 

90.81 

39.6 

9.974 

90.81 

39.69 

9.969 

90.81 

39.78 

10.03 

90.81 

39.6 

9.954 

90.81 

39.69 

9.969 

90.81 

39.78 

9.969 

90.81 

39.6 

9.989 

90.81 

39.69 

9.969 

90.81 

39.78 

10.015 

90.9 

39.6 

10.015 

90.9 

39.69 

9.995 

90.9 

39.78 

10.035 

90.9 

39.6 

9.995 

90.9 

39.69 

10.015 

90.9 

39.78 

10.015 

90.9 

39.6 

10.015 

90.9 

39.69 

9.974 

90.9 

39.78 

9.995 

90.9 

39.6 

10.035 

90.9 

39.69 

10.055 

90.9 

39.78 

9.989 

90.9 

39.6 

9.974 

90.9 

39.69 

10.015 

90.9 

39.78 

9.989 

90.9 

39.6 

9.974 

90.9 

39.69 

10.01 

90.9 

39.78 

9.989 

90.9 

39.6 

9.974 

90.9 

39.69 

9.989 

90.9 

39.78 

10.03 

90.9 

39.6 

10.015 

90.9 

39.69 

10.01 

90.9 

39.78 

10.01 

90.9 

39.6 

10.035 

90.9 

39.69 

10.03 

90.9 

39.78 

10.01 

90.9 

39.6 

10.015 

90.9 

39.69 

9.989 

90.9 

39.78 

10.015 

90.99 

39.6 

10.035 

90.99 

39.69 

9.995 

90.99 

39.78 

9.995 

90.99 

39.6 

10.015 

90.99 

39.69 

9.995 

90.99 

39.78 

10.01 

90.99 

39.6 

9.974 

90.99 

39.69 

9.974 

90.99 

39.78 

10.01 

90.99 

39.6 

9.969 

90.99 

39.69 

9.989 

90.99 

39.78 

10.01 

90.99 

39.6 

10.015 

90.99 

39.69 

10.03 

90.99 

39.78 

9.989 

90.99 

39.6 

10.015 

90.99 

39.69 

10.01 

90.99 

39.78 

9.969 

90.99 

39.6 

9.969 

90.99 

39.69 

10.01 

90.99 

39.78 

9.989 

90.99 

39.6 

10.01 

90.99 

39.69 

9.989 

90.99 

39.78 

9.969 

90.99 

39.6 

10.01 

90.99 

39.69 

10.01 

90.99 

39.78 

9.989 

90.99 

39.6 

10.01 

90.99 

39.69 

10.01 

90.99 

39.78 

10.015 

91.08 

39.6 

10.015 

91.08 

39.69 

10.015 

91.08 

39.78 

10.015 

91.08 

39.6 

9.995 

91.08 

39.69 

9.974 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

9.989 

91.08 

39.69 

10.055 

91.08 

39.78 

9.969 

91.08 

39.6 

9.989 

91.08 

39.69 

10.01 

91.08 

39.78 

9.989 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.69 

10.03 

91.08 

39.78 

9.969 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.69 

10.01 

91.08 

39.78 

9.989 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.69 

9.989 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.69 

9.989 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.69 

10.03 

91.08 

39.78 


112 


Table B. 6b. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.090° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 File: dataset7_covariance_10m_090.xls 

Test date: Sept. 3, 2002 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 


or) 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

*(°) 

or) 

9.969 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.69 

10.03 

91.08 

39.78 


Table B.6c. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.180° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_180.xls 


Strip 1 



Strip 2 



Strip 3 


Range (m) 

<K°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

<*(”) 

or) 

Range (m) 

*C) 

or) 

10.01 

87.84 

39.6 

10.01 

87.84 

39.789 

10.03 

87.84 

39.951 

10.01 

87.84 

39.6 

10.01 

87.84 

39.789 

10.03 

87.84 

39.951 

10.03 

87.84 

39.6 

10.03 

87.84 

39.789 

10.01 

87.84 

39.951 

10.03 

87.84 

39.6 

9.969 

87.84 

39.789 

10.01 

87.84 

39.951 

10.03 

87.84 

39.6 

9.969 

87.84 

39.789 

10.03 

87.84 

39.951 

9.989 

87.84 

39.6 

10.01 

87.84 

39.789 

10.03 

87.84 

39.951 

10.025 

87.84 

39.6 

10.01 

87.84 

39.789 

10.01 

87.84 

39.951 

10.005 

87.84 

39.6 

10.01 

87.84 

39.789 

9.989 

87.84 

39.951 

10.045 

87.84 

39.6 

10.03 

87.84 

39.789 

9.969 

87.84 

39.951 

10.025 

87.84 

39.6 

9.989 

87.84 

39.789 

9.969 

87.84 

39.951 

9.969 

88.02 

39.6 

10.01 

88.02 

39.78 

10.03 

88.02 

39.96 

10.03 

88.02 

39.6 

10.01 

88.02 

39.78 

10.03 

88.02 

39.96 

10.01 

88.02 

39.6 

10.03 

88.02 

39.78 

10.03 

88.02 

39.96 

9.989 

88.02 

39.6 

9.989 

88.02 

39.78 

10.03 

88.02 

39.96 

10.03 

88.02 

39.6 

9.989 

88.02 

39.78 

10.05 

88.02 

39.96 

10.03 

88.02 

39.6 

9.989 

88.02 

39.789 

10.03 

88.02 

39.96 

10.025 

88.02 

39.6 

10.03 

88.02 

39.789 

9.989 

88.02 

39.96 

9.989 

88.02 

39.6 

10.03 

88.02 

39.789 

10.05 

88.02 

39.96 

10.005 

88.02 

39.6 

9.989 

88.02 

39.789 

10.005 

88.02 

39.96 

10.025 

88.02 

39.6 

10.03 

88.02 

39.789 

10.005 

88.02 

39.96 

10.05 

88.2 

39.6 

10.01 

88.2 

39.78 

10.01 

88.2 

39.951 

10.03 

88.2 

39.6 

10.01 

88.2 

39.78 

10.03 

88.2 

39.951 

9.989 

88.2 

39.6 

10.01 

88.2 

39.78 

10.03 

88.2 

39.96 

10.05 

88.2 

39.6 

10.01 

88.2 

39.78 

10.03 

88.2 

39.951 

10.05 

88.2 

39.6 

10.03 

88.2 

39.78 

9.969 

88.2 

39.951 

10.03 

88.2 

39.6 

10.03 

88.2 

39.789 

10.01 

88.2 

39.951 

10.01 

88.2 

39.6 

9.969 

88.2 

39.789 

10.01 

88.2 

39.951 

10.01 

88.2 

39.6 

10.045 

88.2 

39.789 

10.05 

88.2 

39.951 

10.01 

88.2 

39.6 

10.025 

88.2 

39.789 

9.984 

88.2 

39.951 

10.005 

88.2 

39.6 

9.984 

88.2 

39.789 

10.045 

88.2 

39.96 

10.05 

88.38 

39.6 

9.989 

88.38 

39.78 

10.03 

88.38 

39.96 

10.01 

88.38 

39.6 

10.05 

88.38 

39.78 

10.01 

88.38 

39.96 

10.03 

88.38 

39.6 

10.03 

88.38 

39.78 

10.05 

88.38 

39.96 

10.01 

88.38 

39.6 

10.03 

88.38 

39.78 

10.01 

88.38 

39.96 

10.01 

88.38 

39.6 

10.03 

88.38 

39.78 

10.03 

88.38 

39.96 

9.969 

88.38 

39.6 

10.03 

88.38 

39.78 

9.984 

88.38 

39.96 

10.025 

88.38 

39.6 

10.01 

88.38 

39.78 

10.025 

88.38 

39.96 

10.005 

88.38 

39.6 

10.03 

88.38 

39.78 

9.984 

88.38 

39.96 

10.005 

88.38 

39.6 

10.025 

88.38 

39.78 

9.964 

88.38 

39.96 

10.005 

88.38 

39.6 

10.005 

88.38 

39.78 

10.005 

88.38 

39.96 

10.01 

88.56 

39.6 

9.969 

88.56 

39.78 

10.05 

88.56 

39.96 

9.989 

88.56 

39.6 

9.989 

88.56 

39.78 

10.01 

88.56 

39.96 

10.01 

88.56 

39.6 

9.969 

88.56 

39.78 

10.01 

88.56 

39.96 

10.03 

88.56 

39.6 

10.01 

88.56 

39.78 

10.01 

88.56 

39.96 


113 


Table B.6c. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.180° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_180.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

0(°) 

Range (m) 

H°) 

eo 

Range (m) 

<#(") 

or) 

9.989 

88.56 

39.6 

10.03 

88.56 

39.78 

10.01 

88.56 

39.96 

10.01 

88.56 

39.6 

10.03 

88.56 

39.78 

10.01 

88.56 

39.96 

10.03 

88.56 

39.6 

10.01 

88.56 

39.78 

9.989 

88.56 

39.96 

10.01 

88.56 

39.6 

10.03 

88.56 

39.78 

10.01 

88.56 

39.96 

9.989 

88.56 

39.6 

10.03 

88.56 

39.78 

10.05 

88.56 

39.96 

9.964 

88.56 

39.6 

10.01 

88.56 

39.78 

10.025 

88.56 

39.96 

10.01 

88.74 

39.6 

9.969 

88.74 

39.78 

9.969 

88.74 

39.951 

9.989 

88.74 

39.6 

9.969 

88.74 

39.78 

10.03 

88.74 

39.951 

10.03 

88.74 

39.6 

10.01 

88.74 

39.78 

9.989 

88.74 

39.96 

10.03 

88.74 

39.6 

9.989 

88.74 

39.78 

9.969 

88.74 

39.951 

10.03 

88.74 

39.6 

9.989 

88.74 

39.789 

10.03 

88.74 

39.951 

9.989 

88.74 

39.6 

9.989 

88.74 

39.789 

10.03 

88.74 

39.951 

10.01 

88.74 

39.6 

10.01 

88.74 

39.789 

10.01 

88.74 

39.951 

9.989 

88.74 

39.6 

10.05 

88.74 

39.789 

10.03 

88.74 

39.951 

9.969 

88.74 

39.6 

10.01 

88.74 

39.789 

10.03 

88.74 

39.96 

10.03 

88.74 

39.6 

9.989 

88.74 

39.789 

10.01 

88.74 

39.96 

10.03 

88.92 

39.6 

10.03 

88.92 

39.789 

10.01 

88.92 

39.951 

10.03 

88.92 

39.6 

9.969 

88.92 

39.789 

9.989 

88.92 

39.951 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.01 

88.92 

39.789 

10.01 

88.92 

39.951 

10.03 

88.92 

39.6 

9.969 

88.92 

39.789 

10.05 

88.92 

39.951 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.01 

88.92 

39.789 

10.05 

88.92 

39.951 

10.05 

88.92 

39.6 

9.989 

88.92 

39.789 

9.969 

88.92 

39.951 

9.989 

88.92 

39.6 

10.01 

88.92 

39.789 

9.989 

88.92 

39.951 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.01 

88.92 

39.789 

10.03 

88.92 

39.951 

10.01 

88.92 

39.6 

10.05 

88.92 

39.789 

10.05 

88.92 

39.951 

9.989 

88.92 

39.6 

9.969 

88.92 

39.789 

10.03 

88.92 

39.951 

9.989 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.789 

9.969 

89.1 

39.96 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

10.03 

89.1 

39.789 

9.969 

89.1 

39.96 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

9.989 

89.1 

39.789 

10.01 

89.1 

39.96 

10.03 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.789 

10.01 

89.1 

39.96 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

10.03 

89.1 

39.789 

10.01 

89.1 

39.96 

9.969 

89.1 

39.6 

9.969 

89.1 

39.789 

10.01 

89.1 

39.96 

10.03 

89.1 

39.6 

10.01 

89.1 

39.789 

10.01 

89.1 

39.96 

10.025 

89.1 

39.6 

10.05 

89.1 

39.789 

9.989 

89.1 

39.96 

10.01 

89.1 

39.6 

9.969 

89.1 

39.789 

9.969 

89.1 

39.96 

10.03 

89.1 

39.6 

10.03 

89.1 

39.789 

9.969 

89.1 

39.96 

10.01 

89.28 

39.6 

9.989 

89.28 

39.789 

10.01 

89.28 

39.96 

9.969 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.789 

9.989 

89.28 

39.96 

10.03 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.789 

10.03 

89.28 

39.96 

10.01 

89.28 

39.6 

9.989 

89.28 

39.789 

10.05 

89.28 

39.96 

10.05 

89.28 

39.6 

10.03 

89.28 

39.789 

10.01 

89.28 

39.96 

9.969 

89.28 

39.6 

10.03 

89.28 

39.789 

10.03 

89.28 

39.96 

10.01 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.789 

10.01 

89.28 

39.96 

10.03 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.789 

9.989 

89.28 

39.96 

10.05 

89.28 

39.6 

10.03 

89.28 

39.789 

10.01 

89.28 

39.96 

9.964 

89.28 

39.6 

10.01 

89.28 

39.789 

9.984 

89.28 

39.96 

10.01 

89.46 

39.6 

9.969 

89.46 

39.789 

9.969 

89.46 

39.96 

10.01 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.789 

10.03 

89.46 

39.96 

10.01 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.789 

10.01 

89.46 

39.96 

10.01 

89.46 

39.6 

10.03 

89.46 

39.789 

10.01 

89.46 

39.96 

10.01 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.789 

9.969 

89.46 

39.96 

9.969 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.789 

9.989 

89.46 

39.96 

10.01 

89.46 

39.6 

10.03 

89.46 

39.789 

10.005 

89.46 

39.96 

10.025 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.789 

10.025 

89.46 

39.96 


114 


Table B.6c. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.180° Incremental Angle. 


Attic , Bldg . 226 

Test date : Sept . 3, 

2002 





File : dataset 7_ covariance _10 m _180 .xls 


Strip 1 



Strip 2 



Strip 3 


Range ( m ) 

#(°) 

or) 

Range ( m ) 

<H°) 

or) 

Range ( m ) 

<t>r) 

or) 

10.03 

89.46 

39.6 

10.01 

89.46 

39.789 

10.025 

89.46 

39.96 

10.025 

89.46 

39.6 

10.045 

89.46 

39.789 

10.025 

89.46 

39.96 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

9.969 

89.64 

39.789 

9.989 

89.64 

39.96 

10.03 

89.64 

39.6 

10.01 

89.64 

39.789 

9.969 

89.64 

39.96 

10.03 

89.64 

39.6 

9.989 

89.64 

39.789 

10.01 

89.64 

39.96 

10.03 

89.64 

39.6 

10.01 

89.64 

39.789 

10.01 

89.64 

39.96 

10.03 

89.64 

39.6 

10.01 

89.64 

39.789 

10.01 

89.64 

39.96 

10.03 

89.64 

39.6 

10.03 

89.64 

39.789 

10.01 

89.64 

39.96 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

9.969 

89.64 

39.789 

9.989 

89.64 

39.96 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

10.01 

89.64 

39.789 

10.005 

89.64 

39.96 

10.01 

89.64 

39.6 

10.01 

89.64 

39.789 

10.005 

89.64 

39.96 

10.005 

89.64 

39.6 

10.01 

89.64 

39.789 

10.005 

89.64 

39.96 

9.969 

89.82 

39.6 

9.969 

89.82 

39.789 

10.01 

89.82 

39.96 

10.03 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.789 

9.969 

89.82 

39.96 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.789 

10.01 

89.82 

39.96 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

9.969 

89.82 

39.789 

10.01 

89.82 

39.96 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.789 

9.989 

89.82 

39.96 

10.05 

89.82 

39.6 

9.989 

89.82 

39.789 

10.03 

89.82 

39.96 

9.989 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.789 

9.989 

89.82 

39.96 

10.01 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.789 

10.01 

89.82 

39.96 

10.05 

89.82 

39.6 

10.01 

89.82 

39.789 

9.969 

89.82 

39.96 

10.03 

89.82 

39.6 

10.03 

89.82 

39.789 

10.05 

89.82 

39.96 

10.03 

90 

39.6 

10.03 

90 

39.78 

10.05 

90 

39.96 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

10.01 

90 

39.789 

10.01 

90 

39.96 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

10.03 

90 

39.78 

9.989 

90 

39.96 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

9.969 

90 

39.78 

10.03 

90 

39.96 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

10.01 

90 

39.789 

10.01 

90 

39.96 

9.969 

90 

39.6 

10.01 

90 

39.789 

10.01 

90 

39.96 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

10.01 

90 

39.789 

10.01 

90 

39.96 

10.01 

90 

39.6 

9.969 

90 

39.789 

9.969 

90 

39.96 

9.989 

90 

39.6 

9.989 

90 

39.789 

9.969 

90 

39.96 

10.045 

90 

39.6 

9.969 

90 

39.78 

10.045 

90 

39.96 

10.03 

90.18 

39.6 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

9.989 

90.18 

39.96 

10.01 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.78 

10.01 

90.18 

39.96 

9.989 

90.18 

39.6 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

9.969 

90.18 

39.96 

9.969 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.78 

10.01 

90.18 

39.96 

9.969 

90.18 

39.6 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

9.989 

90.18 

39.96 

10.03 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.78 

10.01 

90.18 

39.96 

9.969 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.78 

10.01 

90.18 

39.96 

10.03 

90.18 

39.6 

10.01 

90.18 

39.78 

10.01 

90.18 

39.96 

10.01 

90.18 

39.6 

9.969 

90.18 

39.78 

9.969 

90.18 

39.96 

10.01 

90.18 

39.6 

10.005 

90.18 

39.78 

10.025 

90.18 

39.96 

9.989 

90.36 

39.6 

9.969 

90.36 

39.78 

10.01 

90.36 

39.96 

10.01 

90.36 

39.6 

10.01 

90.36 

39.78 

9.989 

90.36 

39.96 

9.969 

90.36 

39.6 

9.989 

90.36 

39.78 

10.01 

90.36 

39.96 

9.989 

90.36 

39.6 

10.01 

90.36 

39.78 

9.989 

90.36 

39.96 

10.03 

90.36 

39.6 

10.03 

90.36 

39.78 

10.01 

90.36 

39.96 

9.989 

90.36 

39.6 

9.989 

90.36 

39.78 

9.969 

90.36 

39.96 

10.01 

90.36 

39.6 

9.989 

90.36 

39.789 

9.969 

90.36 

39.96 

10.03 

90.36 

39.6 

9.964 

90.36 

39.78 

10.01 

90.36 

39.96 

10.01 

90.36 

39.6 

9.964 

90.36 

39.789 

10.025 

90.36 

39.96 

10.01 

90.36 

39.6 

10.025 

90.36 

39.78 

10.025 

90.36 

39.96 

10.05 

90.54 

39.6 

10.01 

90.54 

39.78 

10.01 

90.54 

39.96 

10.03 

90.54 

39.6 

10.01 

90.54 

39.78 

10.01 

90.54 

39.96 


115 


Table B. 6c. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.180° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3, 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance 10m 180.xls 


Strip 1 



Strip 2 


Strip 3 

Range (m) 

<H°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

#C> 

or) 

Range (m) 

$>(°) 

0(°) 

10.01 

90.54 

39.6 

10.01 

90.54 

39.78 

9.989 

90.54 

39.96 

10.01 

90.54 

39.6 

10.01 

90.54 

39.78 

10.01 

90.54 

39.96 

9.969 

90.54 

39.6 

10.03 

90.54 

39.78 

10.01 

90.54 

39.96 

10.03 

90.54 

39.6 

10.01 

90.54 

39.789 

9.989 

90.54 

39.96 

9.969 

90.54 

39.6 

9.969 

90.54 

39.789 

9.989 

90.54 

39.96 

9.969 

90.54 

39.6 

10.025 

90.54 

39.789 

9.989 

90.54 

39.96 

9.989 

90.54 

39.6 

10.005 

90.54 

39.789 

10.01 

90.54 

39.96 

10.03 

90.54 

39.6 

9.984 

90.54 

39.789 

10.03 

90.54 

39.96 

9.969 

90.72 

39.6 

10.03 

90.72 

39.78 

9.969 

90.72 

39.96 

10.03 

90.72 

39.6 

9.969 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

10.03 

90.72 

39.6 

10.01 

90.72 

39.78 

9.969 

90.72 

39.96 

10.01 

90.72 

39.6 

9.969 

90.72 

39.78 

9.969 

90.72 

39.96 

9.989 

90.72 

39.6 

10.01 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

10.01 

90.72 

39.6 

10.01 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

9.989 

90.72 

39.6 

9.969 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

10.01 

90.72 

39.6 

9.984 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

10.05 

90.72 

39.6 

10.03 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

10.03 

90.72 

39.6 

9.989 

90.72 

39.78 

10.01 

90.72 

39.96 

9.969 

90.9 

39.6 

10.01 

90.9 

39.78 

9.989 

90.9 

39.96 

9.969 

90.9 

39.6 

10.01 

90.9 

39.78 

9.969 

90.9 

39.96 

9.989 

90.9 

39.6 

10.03 

90.9 

39.78 

10.01 

90.9 

39.96 

10.03 

90.9 

39.6 

9.989 

90.9 

39.78 

10.03 

90.9 

39.96 

10.01 

90.9 

39.6 

10.01 

90.9 

39.78 

9.969 

90.9 

39.96 

9.969 

90.9 

39.6 

9.989 

90.9 

39.78 

9.989 

90.9 

39.96 

10.03 

90.9 

39.6 

10.03 

90.9 

39.78 

10.01 

90.9 

39.96 

10.03 

90.9 

39.6 

9.969 

90.9 

39.78 

9.989 

90.9 

39.96 

10.03 

90.9 

39.6 

9.989 

90.9 

39.78 

10.03 

90.9 

39.96 

10.05 

90.9 

39.6 

9.969 

90.9 

39.78 

10.01 

90.9 

39.96 

10.03 

91.08 

39.6 

10.05 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.96 

10.03 

91.08 

39.6 

9.969 

91.08 

39.78 

10.03 

91.08 

39.96 

9.989 

91.08 

39.6 

9.989 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.96 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

10.05 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.96 

10.05 

91.08 

39.6 

9.989 

91.08 

39.78 

9.989 

91.08 

39.96 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

9.989 

91.08 

39.78 

10.03 

91.08 

39.96 

10.05 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.78 

10.05 

91.08 

39.96 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

9.989 

91.08 

39.78 

9.989 

91.08 

39.96 

9.989 

91.08 

39.6 

10.01 

91.08 

39.78 

10.03 

91.08 

39.96 

10.01 

91.08 

39.6 

10.03 

91.08 

39.78 

10.01 

91.08 

39.96 

10.01 

91.26 

39.6 

10.01 

91.26 

39.78 

9.969 

91.26 

39.96 

10.03 

91.26 

39.6 

10.01 

91.26 

39.78 

10.03 

91.26 

39.96 

10.01 

91.26 

39.6 

9.969 

91.26 

39.78 

10.03 

91.26 

39.96 

10.03 

91.26 

39.6 

10.01 

91.26 

39.78 

10.03 

91.26 

39.96 

9.969 

91.26 

39.6 

9.989 

91.26 

39.78 

9.989 

91.26 

39.96 

10.01 

91.26 

39.6 

10.01 

91.26 

39.789 

10.01 

91.26 

39.96 

10.03 

91.26 

39.6 

10.03 

91.26 

39.789 

9.989 

91.26 

39.96 

10.01 

91.26 

39.6 

9.989 

91.26 

39.789 

9.989 

91.26 

39.96 

10.01 

91.26 

39.6 

10.01 

91.26 

39.789 

9.969 

91.26 

39.96 

10.01 

91.26 

39.6 

10.01 

91.26 

39.789 

10.01 

91.26 

39.96 

10.01 

91.44 

39.6 

10.03 

91.44 

39.789 

10.01 

91.44 

39.96 

10.01 

91.44 

39.6 

9.989 

91.44 

39.789 

9.969 

91.44 

39.96 

10.03 

91.44 

39.6 

10.03 

91.44 

39.789 

10.01 

91.44 

39.96 

10.01 

91.44 

39.6 

10.01 

91.44 

39.789 

10.01 

91.44 

39.96 

10.05 

91.44 

39.6 

9.969 

91.44 

39.789 

10.01 

91.44 

39.96 

10.01 

91.44 

39.6 

9.969 

91.44 

39.789 

10.03 

91.44 

39.96 


116 


Table B.6c. Data Set 7: Covariance, 0.180° Incremental Angle. 


Attic, Bldg. 226 

Test date: Sept. 3 

2002 





File: dataset7_covariance_10m_180.xls 

Strip 1 

Strip 2 

Strip 3 

Range (m) 

H°) 

or) 

Range (m) 

#C) 

or) 

Range (m) 

H°) 

or) 

9.969 

91.44 

39.6 

10.03 

91.44 

39.789 

10.01 

91.44 

39.96 

9.989 

91.44 

39.6 

10.01 

91.44 

39.789 

10.03 

91.44 

39.96 

9.969 

91.44 

39.6 

9.969 

91.44 

39.789 

10.05 

91.44 

39.96 

10.03 

91.44 

39.6 

10.05 

91.44 

39.789 

9.969 

91.44 

39.96 

10.01 

91.62 

39.6 

10.01 

91.62 

39.78 

10.05 

91.62 

39.96 

9.969 

91.62 

39.6 

9.989 

91.62 

39.78 

9.969 

91.62 

39.96 

10.01 

91.62 

39.6 

10.01 

91.62 

39.78 

9.969 

91.62 

39.96 

10.03 

91.62 

39.6 

9.989 

91.62 

39.78 

10.01 

91.62 

39.96 

10.01 

91.62 

39.6 

10.05 

91.62 

39.78 

10.01 

91.62 

39.96 

10.01 

91.62 

39.6 

9.969 

91.62 

39.78 

9.989 

91.62 

39.96 

9.989 

91.62 

39.6 

10.03 

91.62 

39.78 

10.03 

91.62 

39.96 

10.03 

91.62 

39.6 

10.01 

91.62 

39.78 

10.01 

91.62 

39.96 

10.045 

91.62 

39.6 

10.03 

91.62 

39.78 

10.03 

91.62 

39.96 

10.005 

91.62 

39.6 

10.005 

91.62 

39.78 

9.984 

91.62 

39.96 

10.03 

91.8 

39.6 

10.01 

91.8 

39.78 

10.01 

91.8 

39.96 

10.01 

91.8 

39.6 

10.05 

91.8 

39.78 

10.01 

91.8 

39.96 

10.03 

91.8 

39.6 

9.969 

91.8 

39.78 

10.05 

91.8 

39.96 

10.03 

91.8 

39.6 

10.05 

91.8 

39.78 

9.989 

91.8 

39.96 

9.989 

91.8 

39.6 

9.969 

91.8 

39.78 

10.01 

91.8 

39.96 

10.03 

91.8 

39.6 

10.01 

91.8 

39.78 

10.03 

91.8 

39.96 

10.01 

91.8 

39.6 

10.025 

91.8 

39.78 

10.03 

91.8 

39.96 

10.01 

91.8 

39.6 

10.045 

91.8 

39.78 

10.01 

91.8 

39.96 

9.989 

91.8 

39.6 

10.005 

91.8 

39.78 

10.01 

91.8 

39.96 

10.05 

91.8 

39.6 

10.045 

91.8 

39.78 

9.989 

91.8 

39.96 

10.01 

91.98 

39.6 

10.03 

91.98 

39.789 

10.01 

91.98 

39.96 

10.01 

91.98 

39.6 

10.05 

91.98 

39.789 

9.969 

91.98 

39.96 

10.03 

91.98 

39.6 

9.989 

91.98 

39.789 

10.01 

91.98 

39.96 

10.01 

91.98 

39.6 

10.03 

91.98 

39.789 

10.01 

91.98 

39.96 

10.01 

91.98 

39.6 

9.969 

91.98 

39.789 

10.01 

91.98 

39.96 

10.01 

91.98 

39.6 

9.984 

91.98 

39.789 

10.01 

91.98 

39.96 

10.01 

91.98 

39.6 

10.005 

91.98 

39.789 

10.005 

91.98 

39.96 

10.03 

91.98 

39.6 

10.045 

91.98 

39.789 

9.984 

91.98 

39.96 

9.964 

91.98 

39.6 

9.984 

91.98 

39.789 

10.025 

91.98 

39.96 

10.005 

91.98 

39.6 

10.045 

91.98 

39.789 

10.025 

91.98 

39.96 

10.03 

92.16 

39.6 

10.03 

92.16 

39.78 

9.969 

92.16 

39.96 

10.01 

92.16 

39.6 

10.01 

92.16 

39.78 

10.01 

92.16 

39.96 

10.01 

92.16 

39.6 

10.01 

92.16 

39.78 

10.05 

92.16 

39.96 

10.03 

92.16 

39.6 

10.03 

92.16 

39.78 

9.989 

92.16 

39.96 

9.989 

92.16 

39.6 

10.05 

92.16 

39.78 

10.03 

92.16 

39.96 

10.01 

92.16 

39.6 

10.005 

92.16 

39.78 

10.03 

92.16 

39.96 

9.989 

92.16 

39.6 

10.005 

92.16 

39.78 

9.989 

92.16 

39.96 

10.01 

92.16 

39.6 

10.005 

92.16 

39.78 

9.989 

92.16 

39.96 

10.05 

92.16 

39.6 

9.964 

92.16 

39.78 

10.025 

92.16 

39.96 

9.964 

92.16 

39.6 

10.025 

92.16 

39.78 

10.01 

92.16 

39.96 


117 


Table B.7. Data Set 8- Autocorrelation, 100 points 


File: 100pts.txt 

Col.l 

Col. 2 

Col. 3 

Col. 4 

Col. 5 

Distances 

Continued from 
Col. 1 

Continued from 
Col. 2 

Continued from 
Col. 3 

Continued from 
Col. 4 

(m) 

(m) 

(m) 

(m) 

(m) 

19.957 

19.992 

19.972 

19.992 

20.012 

19.997 

19.992 

19.972 

19.992 

19.988 

19.977 

19.992 

19.972 

19.992 

19.988 

20.017 

20.012 

20.012 

19.992 

19.988 

20.017 

20.012 

19.992 

19.972 

19.988 

19.997 

19.992 

20.012 

19.992 

20.012 

19.997 

19.992 

19.952 

20.008 

19.988 

19.977 

19.972 

20.012 

19.972 

19.968 

20.017 

19.972 

19.992 

19.988 

20.008 

19.997 

19.992 

19.972 

19.968 

19.988 

19.997 

20.012 

19.952 

20.012 

19.948 

19.997 

19.992 

20.012 

20.012 

19.998 

19.977 

19.972 

19.972 

19.972 

19.988 

19.997 

19.992 

19.992 

19.992 

20.008 

20.017 

20.012 

19.992 

20.008 

19.988 

19.997 

19.992 

20.012 

19.988 

19.968 

19.952 

20.012 

20.012 

20.008 

20.008 

19.972 

19.972 

19.972 

19.992 

19.948 

19.992 

19.972 

19.992 

19.968 

19.988 

19.992 

20.012 

20.008 

20.008 

19.988 


118